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Inside Macintosh: Operating System Utilities /
Chapter 3 - Mathematical and Logical Utilities


Using the Mathematical and Logical Utilities

This section describes how you can take advantage of the Mathematical and Logical Utilities supported by the Operating System, it describes how you can

Performing Low-Level Manipulation of Memory

The Mathematical and Logical Utilities provide several routines to perform bit-level and byte-level manipulation of memory. These routines are provided primarily for Pascal programmers. C and assembly-language programmers can use these routines also; however, in general it is easier and more efficient to achieve the same effects as these routines by using built-in C or assembly constructs.

Testing and Manipulating Bits

The BitTst function lets you test whether a given bit is set. The function requires that you specify a bit through an offset from a pointer. Listing 3-1 is an example of an application-defined function that tests a specified bit.

Listing 3-1 Testing bits

FUNCTION MyTestBit (bytePtr: Ptr; bitNum: LongInt): Boolean;
BEGIN
   MyTestBit := BitTst(bytePtr, bitNum);
END;
The bytePtr parameter specifies a pointer to a byte in memory. The bitNum parameter specifies the number of the bit to be tested as an offset from bytePtr. For example, you can use the application-defined function MyTestBit to test specific bits of the word specified in Figure 3-8.

Figure 3-8 A sample word (in MC680x0 notation)

Using the word in Figure 3-8, the call BitTst(myPtr, 0) returns FALSE because bit number 0 in the first byte is not set. But the call BitTst(myPtr, 11) returns TRUE because bit number 3 in the second byte is set.

When using the BitTst function, be sure to specify bits as positive offsets from the high-order bit rather than using the normal MC680x0 notation (see "Reversed Bit-Numbering" on page 3-7). Listing 3-2 illustrates a use of the BitTst function in conjunction with a bit traditionally identified with MC680x0 notation.

Listing 3-2 Determining whether a handle is purgeable using the BitTst function

FUNCTION MyHandleIsPurgeable (myHandle: Handle): Boolean;
CONST
   kMyBitNum68000 = 6;
VAR
   propertiesByte: SignedByte;
BEGIN
   propertiesByte := HGetState(myHandle);
   MyHandleIsPurgeable := BitTst(@propertiesByte,
                                 7 - kMyBitNum68000);
END;
The MyHandleIsPurgeable function defined in Listing 3-2 determines whether a handle references a relocatable block by examining the properties byte for that handle. The purgeable bit is, in MC680x0 notation, bit number 6 of the properties byte; because BitTst uses reverse numbering, so bit number 7 - 6 = 1 is tested.

The BitSet and BitClr procedures require that you specify bits using the same scheme as with the BitTst procedure (see "Reversed Bit-Numbering" on page 3-7). The BitSet procedure sets a bit (that is, sets its value to 1), while BitClr clears a bit (that is, sets its value to 0). For example, if you issue the following two calls to the BitSet procedure

BitSet(bytePtr, 5);
BitClr(bytePtr, 7);
bit 5 (using the reversed bit-numbering scheme) of the byte in memory pointed to by the bytePtr parameter is set to 1, and bit 7 (using reversed bit-numbering) of the same byte is cleared.

Note
In C, you can test bits by using the & operator. You can set and clear bits by using the |= and &= operators, respectively. In all three cases, one operand should be the byte (or word or long word you wish to manipulate), and the other should be a value in which only the relevant bit is set or cleared. Many Pascal compilers also support built-in operations that accomplish these tasks efficiently. Note that C uses the MC680x0 bit-numbering scheme (normal bit-numbering).

Performing Logical Operations on Long Words

The Macintosh Operating System provides routines that allow you to perform basic bitwise logical operations, including the AND, OR, and XOR operations on long words. Each of the functions takes two long integers as parameters and returns another long integer. You can use these functions on other 32-bit data types, as long as you cast values to LongInt as required by your compiler. The functions that perform the AND, OR, and XOR operations are BitAnd, BitOr, and BitXor respectively. Figure 3-9 illustrates these functions.

Figure 3-9 The BitAnd, BitOr, and BitXor functions

As shown in Figure 3-9, the BitAnd function returns a long word in which each bit is set if and only if the corresponding bit is set in both long words passed in. The BitOr function returns a long word in which each bit is set if and only if the corresponding bit is set in either long word passed in. The BitXor function returns a long word in which each bit is set if and only if one but not both of the corresponding bits in the long words passed in is set.

Note
In C, you can achieve the same effects as the BitAnd, BitOr, and BitXor functions by using the &, |, and ^ operators, respectively, in conjunction with the = assignment operator. Many Pascal compilers also support built-in operations that accomplish these tasks more efficiently.
A common use of the BitAnd function is to mask out certain bytes within a long word (that is, clear all bits in those bytes). For example, to mask out the second byte of a long word stored in a variable value, you could write the following code:

value := BitAnd(value, $FF00FFFF);
The Macintosh Operating System also offers two bit-manipulation routines that simulate unary operators, the BitNot and the BitShift functions, which perform the NOT operation and bit-shifting, respectively. You specify the long integer on which to perform the operation as a parameter to the BitNot and BitShift functions. In addition, you specify how to shift the bits as a parameter to the BitShift function.

Figure 3-10 illustrates BitNot and BitShift.

Figure 3-10 The BitNot and BitShift functions

As shown in Figure 3-10, the BitNot function returns a long word in which each bit is set if and only if the corresponding bit in the long word passed in is not set. The BitShift function shifts bits--to the left if the count parameter is greater than 0 and to the right if the count parameter is less than 0. (Shifting to the left means shifting towards the high-order bit.) When shifting count bits to the left, the count low-order bits are set to 0; when shifting count bits to the right, the count high-order bits are set to 0.

Note
In C, you can achieve the same effect as the BitNot function more efficiently by using the ^ operator on the value whose bits are to be inverted and the value $FFFFFFFF. You can achieve the same effect as the BitShift function more efficiently by using the >> operator for shifting to the right and the << operator for shifting to the left. Many Pascal compilers support built-in operations that accomplish these tasks efficiently.

Extracting a Word From a Long Word

Often a long word stored as a variable of type LongInt is used to hold two different pieces of information in its two different words. For example, when a disk-inserted event occurs, the message field of the event record contains the drive number in the low-order word and a result code in the high-order word. To access these two types of information, you can use the HiWord and LoWord functions. For example:

VAR
   x: LongInt;
   high, low: Integer;
   high := HiWord(x);
   low := LoWord(x);
The HiWord function returns the high-order word of the long word passed in, and the LoWord function returns the low-order word of the long word passed in. You can use these functions with types other than LongInt and Integer, as long as they are 4 bytes and 2 bytes, respectively, and, if you are using Pascal, you cast the quantities to the correct types.

The Operating System does not provide any routines that allow you to set the high-order or low-order words of a long integer. It might seem that you could set the low-order word by calling the BitAnd function with the original long integer and the low-order word as parameters, and set the high-order word by calling BitAnd with the original long integer and the high-order word shifted left 16 bytes as parameters. The problem with this approach is that when you pass an integer variable to BitAnd, the compiler automatically casts the variable to a long integer. But for both integers and long integers, it is the leftmost byte that indicates the sign of the number. So when a negative integer is cast to a long integer, the low-order word of the long integer is not equal to the original integer.

However, you can use the Memory Manager's BlockMove procedure to directly copy the bytes of a word to the high-order or low-order word of a long word. See Inside Macintosh: Memory for more information. Or, if you wish to set both the high-order word and the low-order word of a long integer at once, you can define the following type:

TYPE MyLongWordType = 
PACKED RECORD
   myHiWord:      Integer;       {high-order word}
   myLoWord:      Integer;       {low-order word}
END;
Then you can define a variable of this type and set the high-word and low-word fields. By casting a long integer to MyLongWordType, you could also extract a word from a long word more efficiently than you can using the HiWord and LoWord functions.

Hardcoding Byte Values

Occasionally, you might need to set a group of bytes in memory to specific hexadecimal values. For example, suppose your application uses a data structure with a 16-byte flags field and you wish to initialize each of the bytes in the flags field to particular values. While there are a number of ways that you might do this, the StuffHex procedure provides a simple, though usually inefficient, option.

You provide a pointer to any data structure in memory, and a string of hexadecimal digits as parameters to the StuffHex procedure. For example:

StuffHex(@x, 'D34E0F29');
Of course, it would in this case be just as easy--and more efficient--to write the following code:

x := $D34E0F29;
The StuffHex procedure is perhaps most useful when you wish to assign a large or odd number of bytes or set the values of particular bytes within a variable. For example, to set the low-order word of a long integer x to $64B5, you could use the following code:

StuffHex(Ptr(ORD4(@x) + 2), '64B5');
You could use this code rather than use the techniques described in the previous section, "Extracting a Word From a Long Word."

Note that Ptr and ORD4 are used here simply to satisfy Pascal type-casting rules.

The StuffHex procedure might also be useful if you are developing a calculator or other application that allows users to enter hexadecimal values directly.

Compressing Data

The PackBits and UnpackBits procedures, introduced in "Data Compression" on page 3-8, allow you to compress (or decompress) data stored in RAM. Typically, you use PackBits before writing data to disk and UnpackBits immediately after writing data from disk.

Both procedures require that you pass in the srcPtr and dstPtr parameters values that point to the beginning of the source buffer and the destination buffer, respectively. The PackBits procedure compresses the data in the source buffer and stores the result in the destination buffer; the UnpackBits procedure decompresses the data in the source buffer and stores the result in the destination buffer. You must also pass to the PackBits procedure and the UnpackBits procedure a value that specifies the size of the original, uncompressed data. Because you must pass this information to UnpackBits, you typically use these procedures only to compress a data structure with a fixed size, so that this size can be passed as a parameter to PackBits.

Your application is responsible for allocating memory for both the source and the destination buffers. When PackBits and UnpackBits complete operation, the srcPtr and dstPtr parameter are incremented so that srcPtr points to the memory immediately following the source bytes, and dstPtr points to the data immediately following the destination bytes. This feature was originally designed to allow you to pack large buffers of data at once in chunks, although PackBits can automatically chunk large data buffers in versions of system software 6.0.2 and later. In any case, your application must store copies of srcPtr and dstPtr to access the start of the source or destination buffer after calling PackBits or UnpackBits.

One use of the compression routines might be to compress resources in your application's resource fork. Many types of resources can be made significantly smaller by compression. Listing 3-3 shows how you can pack data stored in a handle to a specified resource.

Listing 3-3 Packing data to a resource

PROCEDURE MyAddPackedResource (srcData: Handle; theType: ResType; 
                               theID: Integer; name: Str255);
VAR
   srcBytes:         Integer;                {bytes of unpacked data}
   maxDstBytes:      LongInt;                {maximum length of packed data}
   dstData:          Handle;                 {packed data}
   srcPtr:           Ptr;                    {pointer to unpacked data}
   dstPtr:           Ptr;                    {pointer to packed data}
   srcProperties:    SignedByte;             {properties of source handle}
BEGIN
   srcBytes := GetHandleSize(srcData);       {find size of source}
                                             {calculate maximum possible }
                                             { size of packed data}
   maxDstBytes := srcBytes + (srcBytes + 126) DIV 127;
   dstData := NewHandle(maxDstBytes + 2);    {allocate memory for source, }
                                             { plus length info}
   IF dstData <> NIL THEN                    {check for NIL handle}
   BEGIN
      BlockMove(@srcBytes, dstData^, 2);     {copy source into buffer}
      srcPtr := srcData^;                    {copy source pointer}
      dstPtr := Ptr(ORD4(dstData^) + 2);     {copy destination pointer}
      PackBits(srcPtr, dstPtr, srcBytes);    {pack source to destination}
                                             {shrink destination data}
      SetHandleSize(dstData, ORD4(dstPtr) - ORD4(dstData^));
      srcProperties := HGetState(srcData);   {get source handle properties}
      IF BitTst(@srcProperties, 2) THEN      {is source a real resource?}
         RemoveResource(srcData);            {remove current resource}
                                             {add to resource file}
      AddResource(dstData, theType, theID, name);
      WriteResource(dstData);                {write resource data}
      DetachResource(dstData);               {detach from resource map}
      DisposeHandle(dstData);                {dispose of destination data}
   END;
END;
The MyAddPackedResource procedure declared in Listing 3-3 initially allocates a destination buffer to hold compressed data that is big enough to hold the compressed data in a worst-case scenario, plus 2 bytes to store information at the beginning of the resource about the size of the source data. Because PackBits does not move memory, the handle storing the destination buffer does not need to be locked. However, to prevent the PackBits procedure from changing the value of a master pointer, you should only pass copies of the dereferenced handle to the procedure. After PackBits returns, MyAddPackedResource determines how much memory the compressed data takes up by computing how much the dstPtr variable has changed. MyAddPackedResource then resizes the handle containing the compressed data to the appropriate size. Finally, MyAddPackedResource writes the new resource, after first removing the existing resource if the source handle is a handle to a resource. For more information on resources, see Inside Macintosh: More Macintosh Toolbox.

Having used the MyAddPackedResource procedure to compress resource data, your application needs to be able read the resource and decompress it using the UnpackBits procedure. Listing 3-4 shows how you might accomplish this.

Listing 3-4 Decompressing data from a packed resource

FUNCTION MyGetPackedResource (theType: ResType; theID: Integer): Handle;
VAR
   srcData:          Handle;                    {handle to packed data}
   dstData:          Handle;                    {handle to unpacked data}
   srcPtr:           Ptr;                       {pointer to packed data}
   dstPtr:           Ptr;                       {pointer to unpacked data}
   dstBytes:         Integer;                   {number of unpacked bytes}
BEGIN
   srcData := GetResource(theType, theID);      {get the resource}
   BlockMove(srcData^, @dstBytes, 2);           {read number of bytes of }
                                                { unpacked data}
   dstData := NewHandle(dstBytes);              {allocate memory for }
                                                { unpacked data}
   IF dstData <> NIL THEN
   BEGIN
      srcPtr := Ptr(ORD4(srcData^) + 2);        {copy source pointer}
      dstPtr := dstData^;                       {copy destination pointer}
      UnpackBits(srcPtr, dstPtr, dstBytes);     {unpack source to }
                                                { destination}
   END;
   IF srcData <> NIL THEN                       {if there was a resource}
   BEGIN
      DetachResource(srcData);                  {detach from resource map}
      DisposeHandle(srcData);                   {dispose the resource}
   END;
   MyGetPackedResource := dstData;              {return destination handle}
END;
The MyGetPackedResource function reads in a resource that has previously been packed, determines the size of the unpacked data by copying the first 2 bytes of the resource data, and allocates a relocatable block of this size. The remainder of the data is unpacked using the UnpackBits procedure, and the original packed resource data is disposed of.

Obtaining Pseudorandom Numbers

The Random function makes it easy to obtain pseudorandom numbers. Before you use Random, however, you should seed the pseudo-random number generator. Listing 3-5 shows a common technique for doing this.

Listing 3-5 Seeding the pseudo-random number generator

PROCEDURE MySeedGenerator;
BEGIN
   GetDateTime(randSeed);
END;
The MySeedGenerator procedure defined in Listing 3-5 simply uses the Date and Time Utilities' GetDateTime procedure to copy the number of seconds since midnight, January 1, 1904, to the global variable randSeed. You might use some other volatile long-word value--such as the mouse location--to seed the pseudo-random number generator, or you might even take a word from one source and a word from another. However, just using GetDateTime is sufficient for most applications.

Sometimes you wish to obtain a pseudo-random integer from a large range of integers; for example, you might need a pseudo-random integer in the range of -20,000 to 20,000. Listing 3-6 shows how you might do this.

Listing 3-6
A simple way of obtaining a large random integer from a range
of pseudo-random numbers

FUNCTION MyRandomLargeRange (min, max: Integer): Integer;
VAR
   randInt:       Integer;
BEGIN
   REPEAT
      randInt := Random
   UNTIL (randInt >= min) AND (randInt <= max);
   MyRandomLargeRange := randInt;
END;
The MyRandomLargeRange function defined in Listing 3-6 simply calls the Random function until it returns an acceptable value. This approach is efficient when you need a random integer from a range of integers that is wide, though not quite as wide as the range the Random function returns by default. However, if you need a random number from a small range--for example, a random number from 1 to 10--the MyRandomLargeRange function is inefficient. Listing 3-7 shows an alternative approach.

Listing 3-7 Obtaining a pseudo random integer from a small range of numbers

FUNCTION MyRandomRange (min, max: Integer): Integer;
CONST
   kMinRand = -32767.0;
   kMaxRand = 32767.0;
VAR
   myRand:     Integer;
   x:          Real;          {Random scaled to [0..1]}
BEGIN
   {find random number, and scale it to [0.0..1.0]}
   x := (Random - kMinRand) / (kMaxRand + 1.0 - kMinRand);
   {scale x to [min, max + 1.0], truncate, and return result}
   MyRandomRange := TRUNC(x * (max + 1.0 - min) + min);
END;
The MyRandomRange function defined in Listing 3-7 first scales the integral value returned by the Random function to a floating-point value from 0 up to, but not including, 1. The function then scales the result to a real number greater than or equal to min but less than max + 1. By truncating extra decimal places, the correct result is achieved. Note that to force the compiler to perform floating-point calculations, all constants in the function are expressed as real numbers rather than as integers.

Sometimes an application might require a pseudo-random long integer. Listing 3-8 shows how you can do this.

Listing 3-8 Obtaining a pseudo-random long integer

FUNCTION MyRandomLongInt: LongInt;
TYPE
   MyLongWordType = PACKED RECORD
      myHiWord:   Integer;             {high-order word}
      myLoWord:   Integer;             {low-order word}
   END;
VAR
   myLongWord:    MyLongWordType;      {random long word}
BEGIN
   {obtain random high-order word}
   myLongWord.myHiWord := Random;
   {obtain random low-order word}
   myLongWord.myLoWord := Random;
   {cast and return result}
   MyRandomLongInt := LongInt(myLongWord);
END;
The MyRandomLongInt function defined in Listing 3-8 uses a technique discussed in "Extracting a Word From a Long Word" on page 3-18 to stuff a pseudo-random number in the high-order word of a long integer and another pseudo-random number in the low-order word of the long integer. If you need to obtain a long integer within a specified range, you can define routines analogous to Listing 3-6 and Listing 3-7 but use the MyRandomLongInt function in place of the Random function.

Using Fixed-Point Data Types

Most high-level language compilers include built-in support for the Fixed and Fract data types so that you can perform regular mathematical operations with fixed-point variables. Also, the algorithms for performing addition and subtraction on Fixed and Fract variables are the same as the algorithms for performing such operations on variables of type LongInt.

The Operating System, however, includes several routines that allow you to convert Fixed and Fract variables to other formats, including SANE's Extended data type, and allow you to perform some simple operations on Fixed and Fract variables. If you need more sophisticated numeric functions, consult the Apple Numerics Manual.

To perform multiplication and division of fixed-point numbers, you can use the FixMul, FixDiv, FracMul, and FracDiv functions, which allow you to multiply Fixed point numbers with each other or with other long integers.

You can multiply and divide 32-bit quantities of different types using these functions. The format of the result in this case depends on the particular function being used. See descriptions of the individual functions in "Multiplying and Dividing Fixed-Point Numbers" beginning on page 3-38 for more information.

Using the FracSqrt, FracCos, FracSin, and FixATan2 functions, you can perform a few special arithmetic operations involving variables of type Fixed and Fract.

The FracSqrt function allows you to obtain the square root of a variable of type Fract, interpreting bit 0 as having weight 2 rather than -2. The FracCos and FracSin provide support for the trigonometric cosine and sine functions. The FixATan2 function provides support for the arctangent function. The arguments to all of these functions should be expressed in radians, not in degrees.

Note
To provide fast trigonometric approximations, these trigonometric functions use values of Pi correct only to 4 decimal places. You should thus use alternative SANE routines when you require better precision.
To convert among 32-bit numeric types, you can use the Long2Fix, Fix2Long, Fix2Frac, and Frac2Fix functions.

Each of the functions returns its parameter converted into the appropriate format.

You can also convert fixed-point values to and from the SANE Extended floating-point type using the Fix2X, X2Fix, Frac2X, and X2Frac functions.

Two additional functions, FixRatio and FixRound, allow you to perform special conversions on variables of type Fixed.

The FixRatio function returns the fixed-point quotient of the numer and denom parameters. The FixRound function rounds a variable of type Fixed to the nearest integer. If the value is halfway between two integers (0.5), it is rounded to the integer with the higher absolute value. To round a negative fixed-point number, negate it, round it, and then negate it again.

Note
To convert a variable of type Fixed to a variable of type Integer simply use the HiWord function to extract the integral component of the fixed-point number.
The Operating System also provides the LongMul procedure that allows you to multiple two 32-bit quantities and obtain a 64-bit quantity.

Table 3-2 summaries the routines that perform operations on the Fixed and Fract data types.

Table 3-2 Routines for fixed-point data types
RoutineDescription
FixMulMultiply a variable of type Fixed with another variable of type Fixed or with a variable of type Fract or LongInt
FixDivDivide two variables of the same type (Fixed, Fract, or LongInt) or divide a LongInt or Fract number by a Fixed number
FracMulMultiply a variable of type Fract with another variable of type Fract or with a variable of type Fixed or LongInt
FracDivDivide two variables of the same type (Fixed, Fract, or LongInt) or divide a LongInt or Fixed number by a Fract number
FracSqrtCompute the square root of a variable of type Fract
FracCosObtain the cosine of a variable of type Fixed
FracSinObtain the sine of a variable of type Fixed
FixATan2Obtain the arctangent of a variable of type Fixed, Fract, or LongInt
Long2FixConvert a variable of type LongInt to Fixed
Fix2LongConvert a variable of type Fixed to LongInt
Fix2FracConvert a variable of type Fixed to Fract
Frac2FixConvert a variable of type Fract to Fixed
Fix2XConvert a variable of type Fixed to Extended
X2FixConvert a variable of type Extended to Fixed
Frac2XConvert a variable of type Fract to Extended
X2FracConvert a variable of type Extended to Fract
FixRatioObtain the Fixed equivalent of a fraction
FixRoundRound a fixed-point number to the nearest integer
LongMulMultiply two 32-bit quantities and obtain a 64-bit quantity


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