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C00003 00002	. REQUIRE "ipub" SOURCE_FILE
C00006 00003	. spaces 1
C00015 00004	9. Geminiani, Francesco, //The Art of Playing on the Violin/, London, 1751
C00020 00005	.SS|Holding the violin|
C00025 00006
C00031 00007	In the matter of the left hand, the theorist-musicians are in
C00039 00008	.SS|Left hand position on the fingerboard|
C00045 00009
C00051 00010
C00056 00011	Corrette''s treatise, which is for the more advanced student includes actual
C00063 00012	Mozart's treatment of shifting is disappointingly perfunctory.  He
C00069 00013
C00078 00014	By the time L''Abb'e le fils publishes his method, the French bow grip
C00084 00015	Monteclaire adds his plea to that of Mersenne stating,
C00088 00016	Geminiani gives a detailed description of the bowing motion:
C00093 00017	Mozart takes bowing variety and control of tone production one step
C00095 00018	Tartini covers various aspects of bowing.  In tone production
C00098 00019	  One can call the bow "The Soul of the Instrument" which it touches, since it
C00104 ENDMK
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.
.S|On Playing the Violin: A Study of selected Sources|
.SS|Introduction|
The sources used in this chapter cover a period of over a century
(Mersenne, 1636 - L''Abb'e le fils, 1761).  They were selected on the
basis of the type of information they contained on the violin, interest being
centered on those which treat elements of practice - 
holding the violin and bow, playing in positions, and instruction in
ornamentation (the last-named will be dealt with in more detail in a later chapter)
The popularity of the instrument soared during this very period, as is evidenced by
the relatively large number of violin tutors that appeared. Its comparatively 
powerful and piercing tone
elevated it above other instruments  as one of the main proponents of the emerging
soloistic style.
As interest shifted from ensemble to solo compositions, treatment of the violin
progressed from being confined to a section in an encyclopedic work (in the 17th
century), to meriting attention in treatises and
tutors dealing exclusively with the instrument's distinctive capabilities 
and problems (in the 18th century)
The earliest of these specialized tutors were elementary in nature and aimed at 
amateurs - people who knew
very little about music, much less the violin. Gradually, as the 18th century
progressed, these treatises increasingly reflected the more advanced technique of the
violin virtuosi.

The following is a chronological annotated list of the sources:
. spaces 1;
. indent 0,3,0
1. Mersenne, Marin.  //Harmonie Universelle/ (Paris: Chez Sebastien Cramoisy, 1636),
v.3 //Trait'e des instruments/, "Livre quatriesme des instrumens a chordes", 
pp.177-190: translation by Roger E. Chapman, //Harmonie Universelle the books on
instruments// (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1957), "Fourth book of string
instruments", pp.231-249.
This contains mostly general information on the violin family, the structure, and 
the tunings of its various members.  There are no instructions on holding 
instruments or
bows.  Included is information on what notes are played with which fingers of
the left hand.  Mersenne recommends using lute ornaments and even includes a sample 
composition in unornamented and ornamented form.
. skip 1;
2. Falck, Georg.  //Idea boni cantoris/ (N:urnberg: Wolffgang Moritz Endter, 1688),
"Anleitung zum Violin-Streichen/ f:ur die Incipienter", pp.186-193.
This is a very general treatment of playing the violin.  Falck pays 
unusual attention to tuning a violin to a harpsichord.  
He includes elementary instructions on holding the violin and bow and demonstrates
some elementary bowings. He seems to follow the French style of playing the
instrument. The chapter describes a placement of the left hand 
corresponding to 7th position, but musical examples never leave first position.
. skip 1;
3. Muffat, Georg.  //Florilegium secundum/, 1698.  This is mainly collection of
French-style dances with extensive instructions on bowing. It contains good 
descriptions (using Muffat's own symbols) for French agr'ements.  There is no
information on holding the instrument or bow.
. skip 1;
4. Mont'eclaire, Michel Pignolet de.  //M'ethode facile pour aprendre `a
jo:uer du violon/ (Paris: chez l''Auteur, 1711-12)  This is a very elementary 
tutor. It contains no 
position playing (only the extension of the 4th finger).  It also furnishes
general musical information (different note shapes, clef signs, durations
of rests, beats per measure, etc.)
. skip 1;
5. Dupont, Pierre.  //Principes du Violon/ (Paris: chez l'auteur, 1718)  This is a 
short tutor
in dialogue form, containing no information on holding violin or bow.
It includes two rather strange engravings of "positions" of the left hand (see fig.
12)
In both, the thumb points away from the violinist alongside the scroll.
Verbal descriptions of the notes each finger can play in each of his two "positions"
are given.  Dupont also provides exercises with bowings marked - again with lengthy 
explanations. Like Mont'eclaire, he includes
some general musical information.  He refers reader to his //Principes
de Musique/ for information on ornamentation and the Italian style of
playing.
. skip 1;
6. Prelleur, Peter.  //The Modern Music Master/ (London: the Printing-Office in Bow 
Church-Yard, 1731), (the 5th bound tutor) This violin tutor is also elementary.
It gives a very odd method of tuning the instrument using unisons rather than
fifths.  Prelleur
suggests marking the fingerboard as an aid to playing in tune, and gives detailed
charts to show where the different notes should be stopped.  In addition, he
describes the locations of the notes on the fingerboard in inches and fractions of
inches. This treatise seems to have been pirated from a 1695 tutor
entitled //Nolens volens or You shall learn to play the violin whether you will
or no/. Prelleur's format and most of his wording is identical to that of the
earlier work.
This particular treatise was apparently quite popular, as it was reprinted
several times and appeared with different titles.∪∪Among these are: //The Self=Instructer [sic]
on the Violin.../ (London: Printed for I. Miller and I. Walsh, 1695); //The First, 
Second and Third Books of the Self=Instructor on the Violin.../ (London: Sould [sic]
by J. Walsh, 16-- ; 2nd title page London: Printed for & Sould [sic] by I. Hare, 1700);
//The Compleat Tutor for the Violin/ (London: C. & S. Thompson, 1765?)
. skip 1;
7. Crome, Robert.  //The Fiddle new Model'd or a useful Introduction for the
Violin/ (London: J. Tyther, 174?)  This treatise is similar in nature to that of
Prelleur - a bit retrospective for its conjectured date of 1740. The treatise
consists mostly of diagrams of the violin fingerboard demonstrating where to 
place the fingers to play his one simple minuet tune in different keys.
He also includes a brief section on time signatures, note and rest
values, clefs, and simple bowing combinations.
.skip 1;
8. Corrette, Michel, //L'''Ecole d''Orph'ee/ (Paris :Chez L''Auteur, 1738)  
This is the first
treatise that shows the evidence of the developing technique. It is divided into
two parts - one for beginners, and one for more advanced students.  Interestingly,
the division also falls along national stylistic lines.  The more 
elementary section treats playing in the French style, and includes many dances
to be played as duets.  The Italian section includes solo work
(sonatas, concerti), passaggi, position playing, arpeggios, double stops, and 
scordatura.  Corrette also differentiates between Italian and French bow grips.
. skip 1;
9. Geminiani, Francesco, //The Art of Playing on the Violin/, London, 1751;
facs. ed. by D. Boyden, Oxford University press.  A valuable tutor for more advanced
violin students, it is somewhat uneven.  Fo example, Geminiani gives a detailed 
description of the 
movement of bow and bow arm, but not much information on the left hand.  The text
found at the beginning explains the musical examples and exercises that follow.
Also included, is a fairly large section on the use of ornaments.  The most valuable 
information is contained, not in the text, but in the comprehensive, carefully
thought out exercises.
. skip 1;
10. Tartini, Giuseppe. //Trait'e des Agr'ements de la Musique/, 1752-4;  Italian
version translated and edited by Erwin Jacobi.  This is a comprehensive and
systematic
treatment of ornamentation of violin music, but is not a tutor for the instrument.
The Italian version contains some information on holding the bow and gives some
bowing suggestions.  A 1760 letter (also included in the Jacobi edition of the
//Trait'e/) from Tartini to the professional violinist, Maddelena Lombardini,
contains some hastily written instructions for the violin, mostly
concerned with bow control.
. skip 1;
11. Mozart, Leopold.  //Versuch einer gr:undlichen Violinschule/, Augsburg,
1756.  This is a comprehensive work, but a bit confusing as to its expected 
audience.  Mozart introduces his book
with an esoteric reconstruction of music history and a description of the string 
family.  His first chaper is a very elementary section on musical notes, clefs, and
time signatures.  The second chapter is on holding the violin and bow, the third is 
on major and minor scales.  He then moves on to more sophisticated techniques -
control of the tone production, complicated bowings, position playing, and 
ornamentation. He also includes a chapter on musical good taste.
. skip 1;
12. L''Abb'e le fils (J.-B. Saint Sevin).  //Principes du violon/, Paris, 1761.
This is also a tutor for more advanced violinists. It starts with the basics - 
holding the violin and bow, and
fingering individual notes, but moves on very quickly to playing
pieces and scales up to the 7th position. He includes a 4 page section on 
agr'ements,
how to play them, and where they are usually used.  There are also sections on
double stops, arpeggios, and harmonics (including a minuet totally in harmonics).
Comprehensive exercises, dances, preludes, and variations are provided as drills 
for the techniques described in the text.
.skip 1;
.spaces 2;
.indent 3,0,0;

It is, then, from these sources that a
chronology in the development of violin technique during the 17th and 18th
centuries will be reconstructed.
The central concerns of the violinists during that period were: holding the
violin, positioning the left hand, and manipulating the bow.  Their technical
experiments showed the advantages of some methods over others,
leading to an eventual standardization in the treatment of these concerns.
.SS|Holding the violin|
The majority of 18th century sources increasingly favor placing the violin against 
the neck and holding it securely by the chin as the century progresses.
Georg Falck instructs the student to 
set the violin "on the left breast [tilted] a little downward towards
the right."∪∪"...dass er die Violin auf der lincken Brust ansetze
doch also dass sie ein wenig gegen der Rechten abwerts sehe." 
Falck, //Idea/, p. 190.∪
Michel Monteclair, however, states,
.begin
.xquote;
To hold [the violin] firmly so that it will not move at all, it is 
necessary to
press the button that holds the strings well against the neck under
the left cheek.∪∪"Pour le tenir ferme et qu''il ne vacile point
il faut bien apuier le bouton qui tient les cordes contre le Col
sous la jo:ue gauche." Monteclaire, Michel Pignolet de, // M'ethode
facile pour aprendre `a jo:uer du violon/ (Paris: chez l''Auteur vis
`a vis le Palais Royal, 1711-1712), p.2.∪
.end;
David Boyden, feels that the above implies the violin is held securely by 
the left cheek.∪∪Boyden, //History/, p.368.∪

Michel Corrette tells his students that it is necessary to put the chin on 
the violin when shifting, because it gives more freedom to the left
hand - especially when returning to first position.
∪∪"Il faut necessairent, poser le menton sur le Violon quand on
veut d'emancher, cela donne toutte libert'e `a la main gauche,
principalement quand il faut revenir `a la position ordinaire."
Corrette, Michel,  //L'''Ecole d''Orph'ee suivi de l'art de se
perfectionner dans le Violon/ (Paris: chez Mlle Castagnery, 1738),  p.7.∪ 

Robert Crome gives similar instructions, "...let the back part rest on your
left Breast [shoulder?], the best way is to stay it with your Chin, that it
remain steady..."∪∪Crome, Robert, //The Fiddle new Model'd or a useful 
Introduction for the Violin/ (London: J. Tyther, 174-?), p.34-5.∪

Virtuoso Francesco Geminiani's instructions are,
.begin
.xquote;
"The violin must be rested just below the collarbone, turning the
right hand side of the violin a little downwards, so that there
may be no necessity of raising the bow very high when the fourth
string is to be struck...Observe also that the head of the violin
must be nearly horizontal with that Part which rests against the
Breast that the hand may be shifted with facility and without
any danger of dropping the instrument.∪∪Geminiani, Francesco.
//The Art of Playing on the Violin/, (London: 1751), p.1-2.∪
.end;

Leopold Mozart describes two ways of holding the violin.  The first
is chest high, slanting down so that the bow strokes are more vertical
than horizontal.  This is not recommended since the lack of sufficient
support for the violin makes position playing inconvenient. 
∪∪"Die erste Art die Violin zu halten, hat etwas angenehmes und sehr
gelassenes. Es wird n:amlich die Geige ganz ungezwungen an der H:ohe
der Brust seitw:arts, und so gehalten: dass die Striche des Bogens mehr 
in die H:ohe als nach der Seite gehen.  Diese Stellung ist ohne Zweifel
in den Augen der Zuseher ungezwungen und angenehm;  vor den Spielenden
aber etwas schwer und ungelegen:  weil, bey schneller Bewegung der Hand 
in die H:ohe, die Geige keinen Halt hat, folglich nothwendig entfallen
muss;  wenn nicht durch eine lange Uebung der Vortheil, selbe zwischen 
dem Daume und Zeigefinger zuhalten, eroberet wird."∪
The description of the second way suggests that the violin is held in
place by the chin:
.begin
.xquote;
"The violin is placed against the neck so that it lies somewhat in
front of the shoulder, and the side on which the E (thinnest) string
lies comes under the chin, whereby the violin remains unmoved
in its place even during the strongest movements of the ascending and
descending hand." ∪∪...die Violin so an den Hals gestzet, dass sie am
vordersten Theile der Achsel etwas auflieget, und jene Seite, auf
welcher das (E) oder die kleinste Seyte ist, unter das Kinn k:ommt:
dadurch die Violin, auch bey der st:arkesten Bewegung der hinauf und
herab gehenden Hand an seinem Orte allezeit unverr:uckt bleibet."
Mozart, Leopold.  //Versuch einer gr:undlichen Violinschule,/
(Augsburg: Johann Jacob Lotter, 1756), p.53.  Translation: Knocker,
Editha, //A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing/
(London: Oxford University Press, 1975), p.54-55.∪
.end;
Like Geminiani he warns that the violin,
.begin
.xquote;
"...must be held neither too high nor too low...The scroll of the violin
is then held on the level of the mouth or, at the highest, level with
the eyes; but it must not be allowed to sink lower than the level of
the chest.∪∪"Erstens, muss die Geige nicht zu hoch aber auch nicht
zu nieder gehalten werden....Man halte demnach die Schnecke der Violin
dem Mund, oder h:ochstens den Augen gleich:  man lasse sie aber auch
nicht tiefer sinken, als so, dass die Schnecke der Brust gleich komme."
Mozart, //Versuch /, p.55. Knocker, //A Treatise/, p.58.∪
.end;

L''Abb'e le fils'' instructions are a bit confusing;
.begin
.xquote;
"The violin should be set on the clavicle in such a manner that 
the chin is to the side of the fourth string.  It is necessary to 
lower the side of the chanterelle [E string] a bit."∪∪"Le Violon doit 
∧etre pos'e sur la Clavicule, de fa,con que le Menton se trouve du 
c∧ot'e de la quatri`eme Cord, il faut abaisser un peu le c∧ot'e de la 
Chanterelle"  L''Abb'e le fils [Joseph Barnabe Saint-Sevin], 
//Principes du Violon/ (Paris: Leclerc, 1761), p.1.∪
.end;
Boyden points out that a violin held in this manner would certainly 
slide away from  the player unless it was secured by the chin.∪∪Boyden,
//History/, p.369.∪

In the matter of the left hand, the theorist-musicians are in
agreement that it should not grip the neck of the violin too 
forcefully since that would tend to stiffen the fingers and the wrist.

Falck states that one should hold the violin 
.begin
.xquote;
"between the thumb
and palm of the forefinger; hold it almost encircling
but not too fast, so that one can play notes with the hand in the
high register and can also come back."∪∪"Dass er die Viol zwischen
dem lincken Daumen und Ballen dess vorderen Fingers/gleichsam eingeschlossen
halte/jedoch nicht zu vest/damit er mit der Hand im Fall der Noth in die
H:ohe/dann auch wiederum zuruck fahren k:onne."  Falck, //Idea/, p.190.∪
.end;
Furthermore, 
.begin
.xquote;
"Both arms should not be against the body but rather free from it so 
they can move sometimes over, sometimes under and will be able to act
lightly with agility. ∪∪"Dass er die beyden Aerme ja nicht an den 
Leib/sondern/um sich bald :uber=bald unter sich bewegen/und leicht
agiren zu k:onnen/frey von dem Leib halte."  Falck, //Idea/, p. 190.∪
.end;

Prelleur gives simple instructions, 
.begin
.xquote;
"hold the violin with your left hand about half an inch from the
bottom of its Head which is usually termed the Nut, and let it be 
between the Root of your thumb and that of your fore-finger..."
∪∪Prelleur, Peter, //The Modern Music Master/, (London: the ⊗⊗Printing-Office⊗
in Bow Church-Yard,1731), p.2.∪
.end;

Crome's instructions agree, "Take the Fiddle and hold it in your
Left Hand let the Neck lie between your fore Finger and Thumb..." ∪∪Crome,
//The Fiddle/, p.34.∪

The above three descriptions seem to suggest that the neck of the
violin may have rested in the hollow between the thumb and the
index finger.

Mozart, however, refutes this, saying that the neck should be
.begin
.xquote;
"...held in such a manner between thumb and index finger that it
rests on one side on the ball at the base of the index-finger, and on
the other side against the upper part of the thumb joint, but in no way
touching the skin which joins the thumb and index-finger together.
The thumb must not project too far over the finger-board, for otherwise
it would hinder the player and rob the G string of its tone.  The lower 
part of the hand (namely, where it joins the arm) must remain free,
and the violin must not lie on it, for in so doing the nerves which
connect the arm and fingers would be pressed together and so contracted,
and the third and fourth fingers prevented from stretching.  We see
daily examples of such clumsy players, who find everything difficult
because they restrict themselves by an awkward position of the violin
and the bow." ∪∪Der Griff, oder vielmehr der Hals der Violin muss nicht
gleich einem Br:ugel in die ganze Hand hineingeleget, sondern zwischen
den Daumen und Zeigefinger, an der andern Seite an dem obern Theile des
Daumenglieds anstehe, die Haut aber, welche in der Fuge der Hand den
Daumen und Zeigefinger zusammen h:anget, keinesweges ber:uhre. Der Daume
muss nicht zu viel :uber das Griffblat hervorragen: sonst hindert er im
Spielen, und benimmt der G Seyte den Klang.  Der hintere Theil der Hand
aber (n:amlich gegen dem Arm) muss frey bleiben, und die Violin muss nicht
darauf liegen: denn hierdurch w:urden die Nerven, welche den Arm und die
Finger zusammen verbinden, an einander ger:ucket, dadurch gesperret, und
folglich der vierte oder kleine Finger sich auszustrecken Gehinderet.  Wir
sehen t:aglich die Exempel hiervon an solchen plumpen Spielern, bey denen
alles schwerm:uthig l:asst: weil sie die Violin und den Bogen so ungeschickt
halten, dass sie sich selbst dadurch einschr:anken. Mozart, //Versuch/, p.54.∪
.end;

L''Abb'e le fils is also quite explicit in his directions,
.begin
.xquote;
"The neck should be held without force between the thumb and the first 
joint (phalange) of the index finger.  The part of the neck closest to the
thumb should be placed on the fleshy protrusion (eminence) of its first
joint.  One must make sure that he places the thumb opposite the A-natural
of the bourdon [G string]."∪∪"...le Manche doit ∧etre tenu sans trop force
entre le pouce et la premi`ere phalange du doigt ⊗⊗Index⊗, la partie du manche
qui se trouve en de,ca du Pouce doit ∧etre pos'ee sur l'''eminence charn:ue
de sa premi`ere phalange; on doit observer de placer le pouce vis-`a-vis ⊗⊗La⊗
naturel du Bourdon."  L''Abb'e le fils, //Principes/, p.1.∪
.end;

.SS|Left hand position on the fingerboard|
There are varied descriptions of the position of the left hand
on the fingerboard of the violin.

Falck states,
.begin
.xquote;
"The application of the fingers should be such that the hand is hollow and 
the fingers curved at the joint close to the strings as if hovering.  
They should be pressed down in such a manner that the next string is not disturbed."
∪∪"Die ⊗⊗Applicati⊗on der Finger soll also geschehen/dass die Hand hol sey/und die
Finger nach ihren Gelaichen eingekr:ummet/nahe :uber den Saiten gleichsam schweben/
auch dergestalt dieselben niederdrucken/dass ja die n:achste nicht zugleich mit
ber:uhret werde."  Falck, //Idea/, p.190.∪
.end;

Monteclaire's instructions are similar.
.begin
.xquote;
"It is necessary that the elbow be directly
under the violin and that the wrist be well curved and the fingers bent
and rounded in order that they may be set on the strings on their tips;
avoiding, however, fingering with the nails." ∪∪"Il faut que le Coude soit
directement sous le Violon, que le poignet soit bien ployez en arondissant,
afin qu''ils se posent sur les cordes par leur extremit'e en evitant neanmoins
de les toucher avec les ongles."  Monteclaire, //Methode Facile/, p.2.∪
.end;
He also includes a 
drawing of the fingerboard and indicates the locations of various notes.

Pierre Dupont contains no verbal description of the positioning of the 
left hand, but does include an extremely singular engraving of a
hand placed on the fingerboard of a violin.(fig.12)  The hand is shown in 
two different "positions".  These positions, as mentioned before, are merely 
variations of modern day first position, with the fingers poised over the e string 
above
the notes F5, G5, A5 and B#b5, in one case, and above F##5, G##5, A##6, and B5 
in the other.
In both illustrations, the thumb is pointing awkwardly back towards the scroll.∪∪
Dupont, Pierre, //Principes du Violon/, (chez l''auteur, Paris, 1718), p.1,2.∪

Corrette describes the left hand as follows;  
.begin
.xquote;
"It is necessary to
take the neck of the violin in the left hand, hold it with the thumb
and the first finger without squeezing the hand, round the first
second, and third fingers, and hold the little one a little bit
more elongated."∪∪"Il faut prendre le Manche du Violon de la main gauche, 
le tenir avec le pouce et le premier doigt sans trop serrer la main,
arrondir le premier, deuxieme, troisieme doigt, et tenir le petit plus
allong'e."  Corrette, //L'''Ecole D''Orph'ee/, p.7.∪
.end;

Prelleur and Mozart have nothing to add to what has already been 
included in the previous section on holding the violin.

Geminiani, on the other hand, gives a detailed description of what
he considers the perfect left hand position;
.begin
.xquote;
"...place the first Finger on the first String upon F; the second Finger
on the second String upon C; the third Finger on the third String upon G; 
and the fourth Finger on the fourth String upon D.  This must be done 
without raising any of the Fingers, till all four have been set down; but
after that, they are to be raised but a little Distance from the
String they touched; and by so doing the position is perfect."∪∪
Geminiani, //The Art/, p.1.∪
.end;

L''Abb'e le fils, who is usually more specific, states merely that the
hand "should be pretty close to the elevation of the neck [the scroll?]
However, he does add that "one must observe that he places the thumb
opposite the A-natural of the bourdon [G string]".∪∪on doit observer
de placer le pouce vis-`a-vis le ⊗⊗La⊗ naturel du Bourdon."  L''Abb'e
le fils, //Principes/, p.1.∪

There is, of course, concern among the instructors that the notes be
stopped in tune, but the suggestions for achieving this goal are sadly
lacking in their tutors.  The only practical directions come from
Prelleur and Geminiani who recommend marking the correct distances on
the fingerboard.  Both their methods include charts of violin finger
boards with intervals measured off. Prelleur even instructs the student to adjust
his bridge by moving it "a little forwarder or backwarder", so that the
distance from the scroll to the bridge matches that in the tutor.
Prelleur's fingerboard diagram is especially intriguing, as it places
enharmonic notes (such as B#b and A##) at different locations (for
example, the B#b is put higher than the A##).∪∪An interesting study of
Prelleur's fingerboard was done by David Boyden (see his article, 
``Prelleur, Geminiani, and Just Intonation '', //The Journal of the    
American Musicological Society/, Fall, 1951, p.202-219)
In this study, Boyden discovers that the notes marked by Prelleur
measure off intervals which closely approximate those of the just
intonation system.∪

Leopold Mozart demonstrates a bit of musical snobbery by scoffing at
the practice of marking or fretting the fingerboard: 
.begin
.xquote;
"If a
pupil has a good musical ear, one must not avail oneself of such an
extravagance.  If, however, he lacks this, he is useless for music
and it were better he took a wood axe than a violin in his hand."∪∪
"Hat der Sch:uler ein gutes musikalisches Geh:or;  so darf man sich
nicht solcher Auschweisungen bedienen;  fehlet es ihm aber an diesem, 
so ist er zur Musik untauglich, und er wird besser eine Holzart als die
Violin zur Hand nehmen."  Mozart, //Versuch/, p.58. Translation: Knocker,
//A Treatise/, p.62.∪
.end;

The amount of information on shifting varies.

Mersenne describes which fingers stop which notes, but gives no directions
on the positioning of the hand.  He merely states,
.begin
.xquote;
"...It is necessary so to adjust the fingers on each place of the
fingerboard so that the tones endure a proportion as well regulated
as if there were frets as on the viol".∪∪"il faut tellement aiuster
les doigts sur chaque lieu du manche, que les sons persuadent une
proportion aussi bien regl'ee que s''il y avoit des touches comme `a
la Viole."  Mersenne, //Harmonie Universelle/, p. 183.  Translation: Chapman, 
``The Books on Instrumefts'', p.241.∪
.end;
He mentions the extension of the fourth dinger,
.begin
.xquote;
"If one advances it [the fourth finger] closer to the bridge than
the position of B mi, it makes the C sol ut fa, and then the D
la re sol.  Thus, the violin has a range of a nineteenth."∪∪"Si on
l''avance plus pres du chevalet que le lieu du //mi/, il fait le
C //sol ut fa/, et puis le D //la re sol/;  de maniere que le Violon
`a l''estendu:e d''une Dixneufiesme."  Mersenne, //Harmonie/, p.182.
Translation:  Chapman, "The Books on Instruments", p.182.∪
.end;
	∃
¬YGVA¬]HA!IKYYKUdAgK∃ZAi↑↓aeKg∃]hAa=`∂'SN{9βCfg'lpλ
⎇[≡(≡h_ ∞M→;p→≡WαE#_v1u@ instructs,
.beeif
,xquote3
"When in a musical @ASKGJ↓]←iKLA←GGUdACE=mJAi!JAMS→iPA←8AiQJ↓gieS9NP@~)3oQS
PASgtAQSO!KdAi!C\@~)GC\A=`∪'vK'3Jβ∃β⊗+π∂#.!β←'&Aβ≠?,ε"ε6≥lv/↔5Dε}vT
W/∨DλV&>T∞WαπMRεF≥l@hV≥lBεNn>F.∞D	v $≥~→$∞~~4LD→Z0↔→py⊗⊂≤8z⊂ 4he f@=`↔≠Ls∨πI∧¬vrπMRεαHλ∞MβP3wCE3s2\α d @Q↑ALA=`	β≥∧¬vv*
↑W∨"XF>
∞↑απ&TεF∞l@λNαy:4→y⊂0w→⊂8:jλ:42P→4πreFingeR
`∨\↓iQJA⊂XD&&	/CM\αβ'9β,¬⊗v.Tαa4o↑9⊗≡∞Bh
.qt2gλ)z≥:XuP∪5z2[↔{rf_t2P0]q⊂22\∧Eβ∀ztw:¬⊗ipt]2w⊂4∞7t2ipv9P≠pw9P≠tz⊂"→w2w⊂∃αierFifgerj ⊗⊗ordinara`e⊗
eRpeichen kan/gesetztqaynd/so muss man die @⊃C9HAQS9KS\AIkGWK8←k]H↓C\AgQCih~)IKgf↓	eSiQK\A
%]OKeL←IK\αβ[?K&+K↔9εW	β&Mβ¬∧ε6/',]cR¬=yG&.d⊗⊗/$λm≤zλ¬Bi[⎇¬L]C"QM≥Y→;E|~9(π.8Y<D_<hExZ<n4→=≥l≥H~3D→;@∞m|Y→.,;H⊃M≥Yy<D=9HL<h→∧∞y=≡L]KHC!(X;_m5λki≤→8+eD≤L'⊗Dc!%Y;Yπ1"T≤L]≠→=.$→→<l>Z8Y.4≥~→$[⎇4NMλ→Z-ly<H←≥→;N=9{K∧]=λ≥≤{h
≥X{≥,L<h≠md~~<aQYZ;L|<X[l≡Yλ⊂m<Y
m⎇→<d∞<λ≥
t⊂-KD∧∩→(
<h~
≡h≠umd≠X;,↑h→Sn⊂:42\pP9t~s:9]CE↔12YtsεE<8zw]2]FEλ,rP3~y9z⊂≤t4s:λ;t4qZ⊂4yP_pv62Y⊂:42H40v3λ9t4s≥⊂4yP≥x7w⊂≥42P~]4⊂64[2P-↑[wr2y≠εE20↑P→72λ87yt]4ww.NP⊂:4→P;t7[2P9t~s:⊂4\P:x7[⊂<rP∞:4⊂6~w2P-Ovwr2\7⊂εEy2⊂8≠ytz4[w.]P≡rP27]q62P≤t4s:λ4yP7[⊂<rP[z4⊂≠4w2P⊗↑vwr→y7⊂≠]4⊂87\tz4w[.]FE≥42P6_yz⊂9Z4s:⊂~yP:x≠w⊂<rH→_:4λ64w2H-↑vwY2y7⊂∞:4⊂8≠ytz4[w.]P≠7z2P≥40z⊂~wεE)Z4s:4[3P<w]P6zy]⊂8:zλ<wzyλ34y9]⊂34w→ry⊂7[⊂:40]⊂64w→P7y⊂∪7z2P≥t2y2H<rP9Z4s:εB4yP:≠P12P→7w2Vλ0w2⊂≥42w⊂≠w{2P≥42P;Z7v2P~0w2⊂~4st2\⊂0qq[y24w→v<W⊃∧Ih92[62zyεE↔WU42P \:↔V⊂≤↔~↔	CE↔2w→≥FE!≠z4⊂0]z47y≤P40{→P22yXy4q2Y⊂2|:≤2vrv≡P44sZ⊂87yZz4ww≤P⊗P:~2P6wY2y7⊂
z4⊂8≠ytz4[w⊂εE~w⊂#0[1uSyH1pyrK⊂0w2λ≤:4⊂~w⊂(9→v62z\∪yW⊂λ*42P≠zytqXv⊂2|_vx62\P4w⊂≥42P:≥wFE6Yz47r≤V⊂47]r{2y⊂:2v≠⊂0P2~s32y→w:⊂9]7y<Wλ⊂#0v_uP72]2y⊂6→p{2yH34y9]εE87\tz4w[⊗⊂0w→⊂(92[62zyλ72{2\⊂3wr\P44sZ2y⊂:~0w⊂!HQ[↔εBεE&w[:2qv_ty2P~0yP7≠P;2y_0v⊂2→yqy4\:4ww≤P7s⊂≤t4s:~w3W⊂λ$2P4[1v:r→yP0P→4psy_vFE7Y⊂0P;~wv4wλ34w3Yy17p\2⊂;t]4⊂67Xpz4w[9P7sλ77z2\P86:\P34w→ry4w→yP:xλ:7P4~stεE⊂[⊂7wλ:42P⊃P9z9~w3W⊂λ*44yH4yP3~w3ry→r⊂⊃Zλ∀897X0q6<H9tsw~s<tw→P0P3≠zy:4λεE34[3ry⊂→|:2w≤tww∀KεEεE⊃:x7w≥⊂1ww≥0tw9H77P4[37y6Xz4wwλ7z42\⊂:40[⊂0P;→y<P:→r4wz\P;2y_0v⊂2→yqy4\:4wwβE7s⊂≥42P7≠z2yP→pqt⊂→4w3r\⊂4yP_q62P≥7P86_|P4wλ44yP≥;wP⊃≤7ytz~ww9Qλ∀9t7]w⊂4wλ:42FB2w3y_{4w3\TW⊂⊂∩2P4w_v:r2\P0P9]0z2vYw:⊂7[⊂:42H2|:2[9twwλ7s⊂:~2P37]y:4⊂→4w3r\εE0v≠wyz⊂_yP0wλ0s:2\:47zYt:⊂4[⊂44yH2|2y_tyrP≤rqz4[w↔⊂⊂∃42P6Xyz2y⊂;t2[⊂0yuYrεE1≡P:42H9z:r→w:⊂4≠{P7w→P92pXt2yP⊂[⊂7wλ:42P⊃P9z9~w3P2↑860t[9]εE12st[εE↔<≤zwz2NFE⊃$]⊂4yP≠2qry\py<P≥7P2|≥2w2⊂βE:42H64z:≠2P34[3ry⊂→7{w;Xy2⊂:~2P24\z0w1YP;t4Xt⊂4yH6py5Yr⊂39≠vP:4→P!⊂:≠P:42H!PεE≠w⊂:4→P34w→ry17Xy2⊂7Y⊂:42H;4wv~w↔⊃	DQ$v⊂→0zz⊂→2yqr[292P≠2P82]4z⊂2≠tz⊂2→P60FB24yz_w1rP≤ztP2\z⊂6p\8zSrYP22x≥tyP6→P9tP~:yxzISpP6	Szz⊂≤zy⊂6→P6pw_t2P2≥PεE+~wv7w⊃⊂⊂"≥x7w:⊂↔Wh≤4w1t\2yWVλ8↔~↔∧FE↔2[2≥FEβEβ!wy9→z:2SIyP:9→pz4yYV⊂;t~qt⊂4\P37yλ:42P≠wy2P_r;0w_rr⊂9]:r2w≥⊂4w1[8r2yH0qz:XvεE8≠ytz4[w⊂86_|tw3K⊂εE↔_2stwβE↔<8]wz2]CE⊃*4≥yV⊂:≠P0yqYw2⊂:≠P1P0X7{2P≥42P1Z0w:2\2v6⊂⊗rP9z≤4w3nCE4z⊂~yP72Xryyp\<P:7H860qYP:42H34y9]⊂34w→ry⊂7[⊂:42H3]P0[2⊂:7H3wP:≠P2⊗⊂≥42FE→4y9zλ34w3Yy⊂7wλ:42P_]P*4→P9pvYP7q9Yy;0z~ww⊂3≠y⊂:4→P7z4→y⊂87\tz4w[9W⊃	DFE⊃ Zw9tP≤7zy⊂≠ww:2\⊂00P≠∪Szzλ22yy]yP60H!t0w≥2y2v≠2P4vλ30zzλ6rz:≤2P62H892vZry2FB27ts]⊂9zyλ62P9[v⊂2zλ87zyλ0v62\⊂0zP∀∪rP6→P892[try⊂→7tszλ9zy⊂≠2P&0K⊂⊂&0H6B2vYFE7q≤ry;0]4ww⊂≤7zy⊂≠2yP0]z92yH87yt]4ww9K⊃⊂!w\92z:→V⊂↔WS∪SSbXwv2WK⊂8↔→MW	FE2w2≥CE*42\rP4w≤z9:q]4ww9H0y2P~w1v:Y2r⊂4[⊂:42H9rqw[2⊂80\:⊂7sλ:42P≥:z7yλ∀⊃$7]P:7P≤60|P~wεE:~2P$z_v4pwλ9z<v→Q∀W⊂λ&zytXpv⊂2↑0vx6→yP:0ZrP:4→P9z:Y2w:⊂_v6⊂:~2P;p↑P:x⊂≥7P:4→FE9r]2w:4λ87yt]4ww↔βEεE#Yvtw4Xw4P4[:97r≥qryP≥42P2~s32y→w:⊂8≠ytz4[w9P4[⊂0w⊂→|2y1ZyrP;Z4qt⊂λ9t2{\FE:4→P24s→2y2w≥⊂+p|\P7s⊂≤z7x8~w3P:~2P9p[rP77]2V⊂0[2⊂24\qw{2\9P0zλ:42P≤pvrP∃4vrPβE:40]⊂*90[9x7yZz4wwλ7s⊂:~2P$0[2⊂-tK2W⊂9Z4s:4[3nP1[w9ty]9P4wλ80yyZw3P3≤7vP7[2P'y→2yεE≥7P0w≠z42y⊃⊂∀ \P42P→|860Zw2r⊂→py64Yy⊗⊂⊃_w⊂7y→2y⊂4\P0P1Yy:0t[⊂':vX2y⊂7YεE'7]2yP;Z4qt⊂_posing the Hand."  They correspond to 
modern day positions.  For example, the second order=second position, the third
order=third position, etc.) His exercises take the student up to the seventh 
order, and are meticulously thorough, covering all possible fingerering 
combinations in the shifts.  On shifting up he instructs,
.begin
.xquote;
"...Care is to be taken that the Thumb always remain farther back than the 
Fore-finger; and the more you advance in the other Orders the Thumb must be at
a greater Distance till it remains almost hid under the Neck of the Violin."
.end;
In another exercise, Geminiani writes out scales using numerous "transpositions
of the Hand" ascending and descending, and makes a rather intriguing statement.
about downshifting.
.begin
.xquote;
"It must here be observed, that in drawing back the Hand from the 5th, 4th,
and 3d Order to go to the first, the Thumb cannot, for Want of Time, be
replaced in its natural Position;  but it is necessary it should be replaced 
at the second Note."∪∪Geminiani, //The Art of Playing the Violin/, p.2-3.∪
.end;
This could, perhaps, be used to refute the crawling shift
of Sol Babitz in which he shifts downward first with the thumb, following 
with other fingers.

Tartini, surprisingly enough, includes some information on shifting in the 
Italian edition of his //Trait'e/.  He suggests that multiple shifts be done
between staccato notes rather than legato so as not to interrupt the smoothness
of the line.
.begin
.xquote;
"As regards to changing position, it is impossible to give any hard and
fast rules.  The student should adopt whatever method he finds most comfortable
in each case, and he should therefore practice the hand shifts in every
possible way so that he is prepared for every situation that may arise...
if the hand has to be shifted several times during a passage, it should be
done between the staccato notes, not the legato, in order that no gaps are
heard in the latter case."∪∪"Nello smanicare non deve tenersi regola stabile,
ma bisogna adattarsi a quello, che nell''occasioni riesce piu comodo, onde si
deve fare lo studio dismanicare in tutti li modi per esser sempre pronto ad ogni
caso possa accadere."∪
.end;

In his letter to Maddelena Lombardini he describes the different shifts;
the half shift with the first finger on G, the whole shift with the first
finger on A, the double shift with the first finger on B, and the fourth
position with the first finger on C (all this on the E string).  The names
of the shifts correspond to present day 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th positions 
respectively.  This seems to be the limit, for he advises,
. begin
.xquote;
"making C with the first finger upon the first string; and indeed,
this is a scale in which, when you are firm, you may be said to be
mistress of the fingerboard."∪∪Assicurata passi alla quarta col primo in 
Csolfaut sul cantino;  e in somma questa `e una Scala di smanicature, di
cui quando ella se ne sia fatta padrona, pu`o dire di esser padrona del
manico." Tartini, //Lettera/.  Translation, Jacobi, //Letter/, p.137.∪
.end;
Tartini's names for the shifts are the same 
as those of Prelleur, but they do not refer to the same positions.

Mozart's treatment of shifting is disappointingly perfunctory.  He
explains reasons for position playing - 1. necessity (eg. notes many 
leger lines above the staff) 2. convenience (to play great leaps)
3. Elegance (cantabile notes occurring closely together can often
be played easily on one string).  Mozart describes 3 positions, whole
position (=modern 3rd position), half position (=modern 2nd position),
and compound position (a mixture of the first two).  He gives two options 
for getting into whole position on the E string - shifting to A5 
with the first finger, or to B5 with the second finger. If the musical
passage requires a higher shift, the violinist again is given a choice.
He cAn ascend using the fingering 1, 2, 1, 2, etc. or 2, 3, 2, 3, etc.
His musical examples take the student up to the 7th position (A6).

L''Abb'e le fils introduces position playing with fingered two octave
scales up to E6.  His labelling of the positions is rather singular, for
his "first position" corresponds to the modern day "second position".
He also includes a fingered G## minor scale thus intrkducing the modern
day "half position" (he does not label this scale as being in any position).
He also describes the extension as advancing or drawing back the finger
andicated by figures "without moving the hand or any finger other than
the oNe being used".∪∪"..il faut avAncer, ou reculer le Dkigt qui est d'esign'e
par le Chiffre, sans d'eplacer la maif, ni aucun autre Dkigt que celui dont
on doit sa servir".∪  He has interesting instructions on sneaking into 
positions,
.begif
,xquote;
 Sometime@LAShA%bA]K
KggCIrAi↑↓gQSMPAiQJ↓←iQKHAMS]≥KefA%[[KI%CiKYβIβπ≠&+H$+&C∃β↔G#↔;OL¬vrb
→bπ>
_6Bε<≡6*b∞Mε*ε←∞F.w=→vrε≡4εn∂-<V"πMtεn∞<Tπ&FT6F∞l|PhV|dπε␈=~FN}d
F/∨4
f␈&≤<V∞⊗LUb⊃→:≡V.g≡\V6↑≡4εNbl↔/"Dv/εL≤6/∩
HW
ε≡X
∞,<h⊃
⎇9⎇≤aQX∧vvIrr4p]2vrw≥⊂0x 2`es L''Extensi@=\XAI¬]fAG∀AGCF0AXNO∃qaK]MS←\A8NOKgPA[CeEjOKJ0~∃ckα)βC?/⊃βK↔v#K∃βn{';Mπ≠↔;OL∧&f*
H	$λz_;L|;90↔≥⊂22P∀4πsiTion.α  L'≥βEDO∀AQJA→SYfX4∀↑←!IS]GSββ↔M≥bβA9EBpL4)v+;⊃lhR3πS-⊃β'9¬##∃β'+S/Ibβ#'Mα∪C?Wd∧⊗&/4 π&∞αy(∞M→(≤nNαr2w≥⊂:x⊂≥4π modernday @∃ckSmα3↔; h+/→β;S!β∧{@≡OM→vrpQ!PRu:;E∨.]\↔↔J¬UR∧F⎇LFNvt
FF*λ-w?`Q*FF/,TεO~
↑V≡B
→g&/,↑7&Nlpλ
≥Y[|M\=~3md~;H∞M→(≥∞8=~.<<h⊂m⎇Xy<Mm;Y`⊂≥42FE~7v24[3P7sλ:42P_7{P⊗H2yx2Xtpv6≡P7w⊂≥42P2~s32`2ences betweef the French
thumb-under-hair and Italian thumb-on-stickerap.
~∃≥K←eN↓≠kMM¬hXAS8AQSf↑←
Y=eSYK≥SkZAMKGk]⊃kZ↑@!B@bldpAG←αc3↔∂&K?9β|1α≠K.s∂!β∨#g3∀hS∪π;≤+E%β≤¬vnn]nGR↓Q"f⊗\⎇⊗ph%oπ∂.}LSXh$*FF*
\⊗V␈-≡GJε|d∧>/-\⊗rπm≥vfNm~7'~≥f"ε}Mε/∩∞
F∂N↑.2ε}d∞Wπε↑$π∨'-≥f8h-≥g∨'.]V.wN4εF}LDπ&FT&␈:≡2π&T∧7⊗]l6B¬9NVff≡>G≥jMrbπ∞,W∨≡≥lrπ&TεF∞≤$π>OM↓PW&Tπ&G]\"ε∞lDπ⊗/>M⊗v:∞Mε*ε}Mε/∩i⊗v>↑.2ε}d∞FF*∞>FN≡4
v $≥~→$[⎇kEeKU~T∩8
0[4pw9KεE0v[w3P7]42y9K⊂24s→2y⊂$[⊂860↑tw3@≥42yrH:x82\α instruments in that they never touch
the hair..."∪∪"In Angreiffung dess Bkgens kommen die meisten Teutqchen in den
Kleinen und mittern Geigen mit den Lullisten :uber eins, indema sie die Haare
mit dem Daemen aninger auff dess Bogens Rucken legen.
Muffat, Georg, //Florilegium Secundum/, (apud Authorem, Typis G. A. H:oller: 
1698), p.21.∪
.end;

Falci implies a French grip of the bow,
.begin
.xquote;
"Above all, one must learn to correctly hold and support the bow in
such a manner that the right thumb squeezes the hair near the frog....
Then, one must grasp and hold the wood of the bow between the two
foremost joints od the finger..."∪∪"Vor allen Dingen muss er Den Bogen recht
fassen und halten lernen/solcher Massen/dass der rechte Daum die Haar n:achst 
bey dem H:arpflein etwas eindrucke...dernach muss er Das Holz 
dess Bkgens zwischen die zwey vordere Gelaich der Finger fassen und halten..."
Falck, //Idea/, p.190-191.∪
.end;

αMonteclaire descRibes a French grip in his tutor: 
.begin
.xquote;
"The bow is held in the left hand the four fingers placed on the wood,
and the thumb Under the frog Which supporps the hair."∪∪L''Archet se 
tient de la main droite les quatre doitq posez sur le bois et le pouce dessous
la hausse qui `el`eve lE crin."  Monteclaire, //M'ethode/, p.3.∪
.end;

A cOmment by Roger North, an 18th century writer on music ipεAeKYKCYS9N\~∃%\AQSLAaeC%gBA←_A∪iC1SC\AYS←YS9SghA9SG←Y∧A≠CiQKSfA!JAgi¬iKfXE⊃JAQCkOQP~∃sJ↓]OY%cPAi<AQ←Y⊂AsJA	←nAEdAsJA]←←HA=]Yr@_A]←h↓iVAi=kGPAeJAQC%dAoQ%GP~∃]CfA]<Ag[C1XAeK→←e[CQS←\\λ&'%←≥KdA≥=eiPX↑←)Q∀A≠kg%GCYX↓∂eC[5CeCC8↑XPb\dpRX4∃KISQKHAEdA⊃SY⊃BAβ]⊃eKof0A→←]⊃←\A6Drdk:0A`\fTZfl\L~∀
∃
←eeKQiJXA]Q←gJ↓ieKCQSgJA≥SmKf↓S]giIkGiS=]fA←8AaYCeS]NA%\AiQ∀A
eK9GPAC9H@~∃%iCYS¬\AgieYKfA¬Yg↑A%]GYk⊃KfAM¬SeYr↓IKiC%YKHA⊃KgGe%aiS←9fA←L↓iQJA→eK]G ~∃C]⊂A∪iC1SC\A	←nAOISaf\A⊃JA∃mK\A%]GYk⊃KfAB↓aSGiUeJA←_ABAE=n@QM%N\bf$t~∀]MWS`@\v~∀]	KOS\4∀]qcU←iJv4∀E)Q∀A∪iC1SC]f↓Q←YH↓iQJA	←nACPAiQe∃JAck¬eiKeLA7←L↓SifA1K]Oi!:XAaUiiS]≤AiQJ~∃M←UdAMS9OKef↓ChAY∃iiKd↓αAC]⊂AiQJ↓iQk[λAk]I∃e]KCQPACh↓∧vAC9HAiQ∀A
eK9GP~∃!←YHA%hACh↓iQJAMSIJA=HAiQ∀AMe←≤XAakQiS]N↓iQJA→Segh0AgKGα{;⊃1∧∧⊗v"∞MεO⊗DfNv|↑ hV≤-w6*∞Mε*π⎇⎇v"ε≡@∧≤$UDπ&FT∞FG.\$π.vL↑&v.≡Mαπ&TεF∞≡$∧2ε≥lBπ&Tπ≡n≥MBε6≥lv/⊂Q,↔"πMRπ≡≤LRε}d∞FF*-w?∨M≤6Zε≡D∧:r∧
FF/<Tπ'>t∞v∂O4
v2ε
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V∧ite ni plus lentement que les doitpεAIJ↓YBA[¬S\AO¬kGQJ0AGCd↓FNOKMhAK\↓GKYB4∃ckJ↓G←]g%giJA1BAIS→SGkYPOJAKPAYBA	KCkh≥JAIj↓-S←Y=\\D@↓≠←]i∃GYCSIJX@↑=~OKi!←IJ↑0~∃`\L\&~∀9K]Hv4∀~∃πI←[JAMiCiKLAiQCPAiQJ↓E←nA%f@E←_AiQJ↓ki[←MhAG←9gKck∃]GJA	KGCkβ≠∃β'"β'MβNqβ∧4Vkπ;;/⊃βS#*αS?;?+∃β?2βS#∃∧K;OS↔+7↔≠"aβπ; βCK?v{W;∂/→β↔[-∪eβSFK;≥β>)βC3∂I9λ4TC∃β↔oβ#πOMS↔Mβ&C∃β'oβ?KS∞s∂∃β}1βCK∞≠S'∂*β'9βε+K≠↔∨#';≥π##∃β⊗{]β7⎇#'?9π≠';∂(h)W≡K;≥β&C∃α␈9βK↔?+3πKgIβ←'faβ7π↑)βS#*απK∃∧s'7f)↓9↓∧C∃βK.cπS↔~βS#π ∧∧≡␈,]FfHQ*v␈.LDε∞fM}rεF≡4π∨'\LVw'4∞FzεMtεfONMF*ε]N6*ε.ZBε',≡rπ&Tε⊗␈t	w6/$λ

(β"M≥\⎇≤N]9;]∧[|Hε4≠|HεD≠;{NM≤kDb8|[{,UλkjM→(⊃M≤→≠⊃%uλ≤≤¬f
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;\⎇∞∞8⎇≤g! KXL\z;C!%↑≤=-}→.c!$U≠hNX=h∞M→(≤m};Y⊂≠s⊂:4→P;4`/lin it is necesqari th∞AaUYPAC9H~∃AUcPAo%iPAY¬eOJAMie←W∃bA←L↓iQJA	←nXAα∪WQβLqβ¬β?∪π∂'␈+Mβπv!βπ∨⊗+↔πf(4+\≥fv/%`EeR;H∞py0q_w22yK⊂60y→wyV⊂_w2⊂']42y≤4rqb\β of taste, it is
@9KGKgMCerAQ↑AaYαeβ←F{3∃βv{S↔Mbβ#π∪2β;?S/→3π≠ βGWπ↔#↔Iβv{S↔M¬;'S!εcπK∨*4+O'∪?/↔~β?→β&C∃β␈84+πv!βO←.c1βSF)βO?.s∪Mβ∂!βS#*β↔;⊃r↓αW"β≠?Iπ##∃β,s∪Mβ}1βO?v;Mβ'"β'L4Vs↔∂↔∨≠πKeπ#=β.;'9β&C∃β␈9βOS⊗{/πMπ;'S!π≠←↔↔&s↔OMbβOSK.s∨S#.qβ'Q∧∧↔"Q.FF*
]⊗&&LUBε∞l@ε6Nm~6BbO⊗Nvud!→~*
w/∩∞M↔⊗/$λG*π=ybε'T
fN}M⎇bbε≥APV6≡↑Bπ&≡,W∩ε↑Dπε␈↑>6/∩LRε?,≥f'~=w/π4B:<≡,6F/EDεn∞≡4ε":}]f*ε\≥fN/,QPV?,≤6N/↑<Rε/Dλ⊗?∩|\⊗⊗fUebrtL≥g~εL↑2π≡≡,⊗⊗∞lLW~bλ≤F∞>≥uB∧f≡,v{ZZBε∂↑N&/_Q*εN.<Z2ε&Tvx'↑EBεNDλf∂/Df∞O,Tεf/4
&}vL↑2b∧-L⊗v≡↑2bε↑D∧f}≡,W~ε≡lV~εLQPV?,≥f'~λ=w/π4B:<≡,6F/DλW"ε]lff/$	F/~∞=vw~∞>W∩εL∀ε&Ned∧n∞≡4πε␈↑$εf/1Q&6Nl≥Ff/4W"πL↑&nNl≥↔≡}n4ε&*=ε∞wN5BεNDλf∂/D6}n\Yf≡/$
F*ε=}WαεDpt∂⊗=W h,≡f.~Mw.≡↑↑"εfTf␈↔M≤fN/$↔*ε]≥FN/TW"εLTε6Nm≡"ε.d
V␈/,≥g"r$∧∧≡␈.,W'&UAPRzyDr:<\=vf*uDππαfuBβ≠Eb0hRl]f#XQ!PPGeminiani gives a detailed description of the bowing motion:
.begin
.xquote;
The Motion is to proceed from the Joints of the Wrist and Elbow in playing quick
Notes, and very little or not at all from the Joint of the Shoulder; but in playing
long Notes, where the Bow is drawn from one End of it to the other, the Joint of the
Shoulder is also a little employed.  The Bow must always be drawn parallel with the
Bridge, (which can't be done if it is held stiff) and must be pressed upon the 
Strings with the Fore-finger only, and not with the whole Weight of the Hand.  The
Best Performers are least sparing of theip Bow9 and make Use of the whole oF it,
from the Point to that Part od it under, and eveN beyond their Fingers.  In an upbow
the Hand is bent @∧AYSiQYJAI=o]oCIHAMe=ZAiQ∀A∃←S9hA←L↓iQJA]eSgh0AoQK8AiQJ↓≥khA=HAiQ∀~∃¬←\ACaaI←CGQ∃bAiQ∀A'ie%]OfX↓C]HAQQJA/ISghA%bAS[5KISCQKYrAMieKS≥Qi]K⊂XA←d↓iQJA!C]H~)eCiQ∃dABA1SiiY∀AEK]PAECG,A←dAUaoCe⊂XACf↓g←←\↓CfAi!JA¬←\ASfA	KOC\↓i↑AE∀AIeC]\AI←]\~∃C≥CS@9ph);↔v!l4*F)β#π~β7W∂BβS-β≡eβ?rβS#∃εK7C?↔#π;∂*β?→β⊗{←'≠8β'9β⊗+πWSN3W1β≡{W;⊃πβK?∪,≠S'?rp4);⊗+∨'_hQ;cG.{S∃LhR?;∃ε{⊂∩πMRππ-≥f≡O≥B∧⊗\≡W&N↑4ε}2∞Mε*¬m→vfNd
↔
πMRπ∨|]FfNlpε␈∩Yf∨⊗\≡6Nvt⊗v Q.6}7L]fNvt∞FF*
9w.vG4π>F≤=αεO4F}vT'Jπ∞,W∨≡≥lrπ&T∧⊗←t∞Wε}d∞FF*
8
∞4w3yH;tz4λ:42FB#7y2Ks0w3Yy⊂6w\2P7`2 less.  In playing all long Notes the SOund should be begun
soft, and gradually swelled Till The Middle, afddrom thence gradually softeneD
till the End∞  And lastly, particularCare must be taken to draw the Bow smooth
from oNe End to The oTher Without any Interruption op∧Agi=aaS]≤AS\AQQJA≠%IIYJ8@A
←H~∃←\↓iQSf↓aeS]
SaCY1rXAC9HAiQ∀AWKKββ';≥εKQβπg;πgMπβπKπfc↔1β>KS!β&C∃α⊗K∪∨∃bβπ;⊃h+CK/≠G'≠8∧εO"
⎇fgJ∞⎇↔&B∞Mε*∧mz&*nm≥f>/$
Wε}d∞FF*
:GεNl}2π>≡Mα∧&≡<7⊗/M≥vrbLWε.lN2π&QPV6≥lR¬&⎇lRε}d∞FF*	≥g∨'.]V.wEb1≤>]]⊗vN≥m∩bαuzFF*λ≡'"zDλ¬fKDc!%Y;Yπ1"R→$;≤{dx=0~~ww9]βE↔12Ytp∞
.xquote3
The Bow must always be drawn straiT on The S@QaS]OLXAC]⊂A]Km∃`	β*βCππ≡+⊃β≠⊗{5βSF+5β'ph+C3∂K';≥¬≠↔7%oWπ[-∪E99ph(4*⊗+≠ ?,T∧Jε=xL=≥9→$∞~→(λ≡]~8mL(≠qDλY⎇z-lkλ∩$
=<⎇∧x=5
≥{H≥
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∧~~4dλ[⎇nd[|@
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→(≥m≥≠λ~≡Y≠≡$=Y4D↓"[→,≡Y(~.D≠yYE@⊂⊂ w→⊂4z⊂~0yP0H6wqzλ24ypYy2rpX62P"Y32qz⊂0w2λ392x]rs:6≡P22y]97|iH:42FB 2ytYw⊂7cλ:42P⊂wvx7\py↔	Ddq4r⊗⊂8↔∞W	FE2w2;
His Examphes exercise the playerin various combinations od∧AE←]S]Of0ACMHαβ#∃β,πεF␈.N0hWMRπ∨NXF.wDλ

t≤≤X,>~8q$Yxt[3P2l→y1t`3es fIp¬ghA=]YbA=\A←a∃\AgiIS]OfQ↔c,ε&≡O<ThUλε∩*@∀P⊃4[⊂7y2→y⊂77]⊂:7P_ww3 /und
the Execution Od∧AiQ∀A¬@'v;↔KM¬;'S!¬##πQ∧{⊂∩πMR∧⊗|pλD¬(_;D8z≠d
yH∪,↑\y3Ml#"P⊂[2⊂&w[:2q`,aire.  Inone Exaeple, he shoWpεAIK→SCMGα)β/→¬##∃α4ε&.v=ε&←⎇l&␈:∞.Vf*∧↓PF↔∀λ
-n⎇≤],>~;Yd∞~→(∞≡≥9→-nλ≥≠d9_
2\4εate bg`/%]Of@	iC@/L¬f*∧<≡&*εmx
∧∞≠h⊂∪≠v67kCE:40]⊂;y2]1t2`$ Rul@∀AP∨→ε#Cπ←Ns∃βSF)α∨8β∪/←pβπQβ&C∃β≠Lε'>λ∪[nL(≠p∪λ2{2`2y Bar,∧&'∪	SH@9b4+Aq!0⊃_Q!P@dnβ}P⊂\8∧ taias Bowing rarietq @¬]HAG=]ae←αaβ >dλ

⎇Y(∀∞
βr0∃@
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Tapering to weak (fiG,∧bjR0AgKC,AOe←]S]NAMie←]≤@QMS≤XblR0AC@; ∧ε
π|\⊗ZO>N&}vu↑v.∞5↑7'⊗⎇lphW=x
-lλ≥z.M~;@
⎇Y(≤nNYzy$¬→Z0∪K_[TPP0v , h∂LAQQKgJ↓aeCGQSgKHαβ?9β⊗{S!β&C∃βW∧∪?]β∞s⊃βSF(4+∪⎇;;∨αubα∧Tε∞g=tπε.=yVn∞βY≤d∞≤X8nM8z3L@P:42H897b≥qz4g[⊂7s⊂_P9w`5nd which
is p@∃`≠↔≤εFgJX
L]H→P→≠vP7`.e end h∂LAQQJAE=nAi↑↓iQJAα{S#↔⊂↓#¬β⊗{]β∪,3g'lpλ≤⎇β!z=Y-d≥~→$∞Y<r-M9;]∧∞|≤Z-lz;Y.≡h≠p∪λ4z9P_qz4g[⊂92y]v:4w→P397[P4z9H1ww;→|⊂1g[9z9:Xz4ww
W
Mozart see@LAiQJ↓[Cgi∃erA←_AiQJ↓E←nA¬bAKgMK]iS¬XAS\↓iQJAAe←aKHAKqK
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≥Z(⊂⊃[{2y9H;0y4[zyP0\x2qz≤P7s⊂_7{tw→U⊂⊂$[⊂:7w→P897Y:qz4[wεE↔_2stwβE↔<8]wz2]CE⊃*7H290{H0P12Xzz4s≥v⊂:7[2P3 2om the instrument, place the bow on the strings
Gently at First and Then increase the preqsure.  If the fqll pressure iq
applied immediately, A harsh, scp¬CaSαs∃βO|εVv"∞⎇⊗f@λ≤Y.>;≥βD"dhT↑H_p.l<Y#!,_;∪∧tr<p~≤5vrg≥5P1:[w0P;≠qrP1~ywsw	SP0x≤5sstXy2P&	S`y1[P1w`. del@%GCiKiuBAaIS[BX4∃JAa=RAGC1GCdAαc=1β∞cSKπn+;S%∧∧↔πε||vN∞lMvf@h≤⎇,-=≠h={H⊃M}↑X ∞tP1`!varebbe vOca c@Ik@∪∧hSGSKL#?3¬p∧"α¬L≡'&Nm∃Bαzz,V.}LUrbπ¬b"`"c"KL]Y∞c!
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but suGg`giLAaeC
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H
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JASh4∃gKeYKfAi<AOSm∀AKqaIKggSα{9βSzβS#∃π≠?W;'→1βSzβGC'rβS#↔h∧ε␈/EDπ&@h≤⎇l]≠λ∃
;+λ≥Yβ"NMβP24[tp∞i@MPAiQ∃ZP_∀R↓αS=¬≠C'9∧{WQβλβG?Wv!β'M¬#=βO/≠Sπ≥`εO"mwαε∀λλl↑]_:-d⊗x;-};]λ
|W(∃
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∞[⎇0∪ZεA0∀he same deGree Od∧AM←β∪∂∃8hQ↓αSzβO←↔d¬Bε∞l@λM;:0↔~yt⊂*~2P9p[pP9w]w2⊂4]⊂4yP≠2qry\py4P≥4π start @→KKEYdXAgo∃YP⊂4T∪eβ∪.;K↔↔~βS :∞Mε*π
x
-nλ≥z]H~0~λ3:v ,y explodes, then soften it ina siMilar
λmanner by degrees In suCh a @→CgQS=\AiQ¬hASh↓IS]Sβ≠#↔MεK7C↔⊗≠↔CSN∪3e9⊃_E
1::πK∂F+P$&{'Q&+SK∃¬#↔;Uε[↔
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L=<\aQX¬7t[::y2\P27d]2w:⊂↓2z92H0zP![w:90Zy2P#≠y:⊂ ,ibres, en↓←EgKβ∪[π≠ β∂π∪λ¬Bε@→<hMz9⎇∞⊃ YP∩\αh∂]h↓]Ci@,ε&.fLYV.wDλ	↑h≠;n↑Y;9-nh~3.<Xq.∞~8[↑h≤=-∀_{p↔≥90q:Yy3w:λ12pzXwzx⊂_0@
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hλNO¬aGQKPAIe←%hXAKPAQJA⊃SeCO∃`Ai←UUP∨W↔→βOW⊂β3↔M↓0Z?WL+LYβ')α['|¬F}rd	B:>≤hλ-n8\L≡c"Q
⎇=λ⊂→Yzv2vYw:⊂ !eir, et suivre le P@=SO]Kβ!β∪πw→βS?-#↔Mβ≤+@~ε}∧v/⊗≡M⊗}w5Dεf*.&∂_Q(∞-|≤Y-\αs:⊂→4z⊗⊂≠2P27Zz⊂9bH89α2]2y⊂ 1u`
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H	-≥Y;9-n	λ⊂∩]⊂2w9]tz2P≠⊂π'addoucIp∧AIJ4∃P∀∪.k∃βC∂⊃β⊃∨.;I∂∃bβ∪∃β4∧∩f≡⎇`π∂*t⎇⊗bεm_M≡|y(
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