perm filename THRY[T,LSP]2 blob sn#637572 filedate 1981-06-09 generic text, type C, neo UTF8
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C00001 00001
C00003 00002	. REQUIRE "ipub" SOURCE_FILE
C00006 00003	. spaces 1
C00015 00004	9. Geminiani, Francesco, //The Art of Playing on the Violin/, London, 1751
C00020 00005	.SS|Holding the violin|
C00025 00006
C00031 00007	In the matter of the left hand, the theorist-musicians are in
C00039 00008	.SS|Left hand position on the fingerboard|
C00045 00009
C00051 00010
C00056 00011	Corrette''s treatise, which is for the more advanced student includes actual
C00063 00012	Mozart's treatment of shifting is disappointingly perfunctory.  He
C00069 00013
C00078 00014	By the time L''Abb'e le fils publishes his method, the French bow grip
C00084 00015	Monteclaire adds his plea to that of Mersenne stating,
C00088 00016	Geminiani gives a detailed description of the bowing motion:
C00093 00017	Mozart takes bowing variety and control of tone production one step
C00095 00018	Tartini covers various aspects of bowing.  In tone production
C00098 00019	  One can call the bow "The Soul of the Instrument" which it touches, since it
C00104 ENDMK
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.S|On Playing the Violin: A Study of selected Sources|
.SS|Introduction|
The sources used in this chapter cover a period of over a century
(Mersenne, 1636 - L''Abb'e le fils, 1761).  They were selected on the
basis of the type of information they contained on the violin, interest being
centered on those which treat elements of practice - 
holding the violin and bow, playing in positions, and instruction in
ornamentation (the last-named will be dealt with in more detail in a later chapter)
The popularity of the instrument soared during this very period, as is evidenced by
the relatively large number of violin tutors that appeared. Its comparatively 
powerful and piercing tone
elevated it above other instruments  as one of the main proponents of the emerging
soloistic style.
As interest shifted from ensemble to solo compositions, treatment of the violin
progressed from being confined to a section in an encyclopedic work (in the 17th
century), to meriting attention in treatises and
tutors dealing exclusively with the instrument's distinctive capabilities 
and problems (in the 18th century)
The earliest of these specialized tutors were elementary in nature and aimed at 
amateurs - people who knew
very little about music, much less the violin. Gradually, as the 18th century
progressed, these treatises increasingly reflected the more advanced technique of the
violin virtuosi.

The following is a chronological annotated list of the sources:
. spaces 1;
. indent 0,3,0
1. Mersenne, Marin.  //Harmonie Universelle/ (Paris: Chez Sebastien Cramoisy, 1636),
v.3 //Trait'e des instruments/, "Livre quatriesme des instrumens a chordes", 
pp.177-190: translation by Roger E. Chapman, //Harmonie Universelle the books on
instruments// (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1957), "Fourth book of string
instruments", pp.231-249.
This contains mostly general information on the violin family, the structure, and 
the tunings of its various members.  There are no instructions on holding 
instruments or
bows.  Included is information on what notes are played with which fingers of
the left hand.  Mersenne recommends using lute ornaments and even includes a sample 
composition in unornamented and ornamented form.
. skip 1;
2. Falck, Georg.  //Idea boni cantoris/ (N:urnberg: Wolffgang Moritz Endter, 1688),
"Anleitung zum Violin-Streichen/ f:ur die Incipienter", pp.186-193.
This is a very general treatment of playing the violin.  Falck pays 
unusual attention to tuning a violin to a harpsichord.  
He includes elementary instructions on holding the violin and bow and demonstpates
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εO∨M≤6∂&\Dπ&.ontrol of the tone production, complicated bowings, position playing, and 
ornamentation. He also includes a chapter on musical good taste.
. skip 1;
12. L''Abb'e le fils (J.-B. Saint Sevin).  //Principes du violon/, Paris, 1761.
This is also a tutor for more advanced violinists. It starts with the basics - 
holding the violin and bow, and
fingering individual notes, but moves on very quickly to playing
pieces and scales up to the 7th position. He includes a 4 page section on 
agr'ements,
how to play them, and where they are usually used.  There are also sections on
double stops, arpeggios, and harmonics (including a minuet totally in harmonics).
Comprehensive exercises, dances, preludes, and variations are provided as drills 
for the techniques described in the text.
.skip 1;
.spaces 2;
.indent 3,0,0;

It is, then, from these sources that a
chronology in the development of violin technique during the 17th and 18th
centuries will be reconstructed.
The central concerns of the violinists during that period were: holding the
violin, positioning the left hand, and manipulating the bow.  Their technical
experiments showed the advantages of some methods over others,
leading to an eventual standardization in the treatment of these concerns.
.SS|Holding the violin|
The majority of 18th century sources increasingly favor placing the violin against 
the neck and holding it securely by the chin as the century progresses.
Georg Falck instructs the student to 
set the violin "on the left breast [tilted] a little downward towards
the right."∪∪"...dass er die Violin auf der lincken Brust ansetze
doch also dass sie ein wenig gegen der Rechten abwerts sehe." 
Falck, //Idea/, p. 190.∪
Michel Monteclair, however, states,
.begin
.xquote;
To hold [the violin] firmly so that it will not move at all, it is 
necessary to
press the button that holds the strings well against the neck under
the left cheek.∪∪"Pour le tenir ferme et qu''il ne vacile point
il faut bien apuier le bouton qui tient les cordes contre le Col
sous la jo:ue gauche." Monteclaire, Michel Pignolet de, // M'ethode
facile pour aprendre `a jo:uer du violon/ (Paris: chez l''Auteur vis
`a vis le Palais Royal, 1711-1712), p.2.∪
.end;
David Boyden, feels that the above implies the violin is held securely by 
the left cheek.∪∪Boyden, //History/, p.368.∪

Michel Corrette tells his students that it is necessary to put the chin on 
the violin when shifting, because it gives more freedom to the left
hand - especially when returning to first position.
∪∪"Il faut necessairent, poser le menton sur le Violon quand on
veut d'emancher, cela donne toutte libert'e `a la main gauche,
principalement quand il faut revenir `a la position ordinaire."
Corrette, Michel,  //L'''Ecole d''Orph'ee suivi de l'art de se
Perfectionner dans le Violon/ (Paris: chez Mlle Castagnery, 1738),  p.7,∪ 

Robert Crome gives similar Instructions, "...let the back pard rest on your¬
Left Breast [shoulder?], the best way is tk stay iT with yger Chin, that it
remain steady..."β∪Cr`∨[∀XA%←	KehX↑←)Q∀A
CI⊃YJA]∃nA≠←⊃KXOH↓←dAB↓kgKMUX@~∃%]ie←⊃kGiS=\AM←β⊃βS#*α['?d¬⊗rz¬	F}vM⎇cR∧%`¬'OMW∩bε⊗s"ku∃Bπαf6Bk*b1PPh*m↔↔']z6z∧n,⊗v≡↑<6z∧|]VNv≤≥fJ?4	⊗w∨N.V∨&≥⎇g~ε≤,R`h%l&.>≥aPRw∞≡V␈&W1PR∃MRπ6≥yFNr
↑W∨",Rπ⊗↑:F."
*W∨",Vf←t
FF*9vfF≤,&}vUDπ'<[Z-lh≥~Q"\Z,]≥λ∩≥Yλ∀m≤→(≠l@⊂:42H;0w`,in a↓YSii1JAI←]]oC@⊗#M!β≤yβS#∂!βS#-∪∀4+neβ*β;=βv+∂πO≤KSeβ|∧bπ⊗≥≡6Nvt
FF*-w:πlZ'Jε
_	m∧≥z→-d≥~→$[⎇<NMβ"\nNZ;Yd
<h∃
t_Y(∞>≤]8m∃KKSl.y<]LT_;≤mt≥~_.D≥~→$
→89∧
yH≥
(≥Z-⎇~;C!-=<⎇∧Y(≠L\<[≡$
≠|Z/-{]_-D≥z=
∧≥~_.D∀_<ND≥z~,=λ≤Y.>≤h_,|:;\nD≥~→!QP\Y,≡⎇λ≥
=λ∃
(~_-lλ≠8/∀_Y(∞=~9]\λ≥z.Mλ→X,=;~=∂∀_;Y∧∞z=~
}=β"L≥↑(→≥Yy<D
yH→∞-|≤~-lh≥~T~;\nN];9-nDdh|;:;M≤;Z+∧λ\X;L<<x{ea"KkjM→(⊂..λ≠yD
≠_>-≥Yh≠md≥~→$
Z;{
≥Kkλ¬	≠{Y
⎇NH&v,*+∧∞L+&%Dc"El;YεaQ@↓A ¬& %opold MozArt deqcribes two wayq of holding the vi@=YS\\A)QJ↓H'K≤ε@hV≤4ε≡F↑:BεF≤⎇αbπ=L⊗w&≥lrε&}⎇bπ≡t
FF∂Dλ

(_[nt≤⎇≤M⎇y<h≡Y(∪-}Y(∃L↑]~8l≥β"U
8π⊂4≠y0p~Onpal.  ThipεASf↓]←hAβ∪↔∂?nk↔;∪.!βO'v≠∃βSF)β3π≡Yβ?→π≠W≠L∧6N∞nAPW∨↑∞ε␈↔Dλ	M}H≥~T≥Z3mM;H∪,≥y<h∞
|z5
≥{H≤
L>:;Lt~;Xm⎇]Y0↔~rw:↔λεE	IH 4rP→y9z2H y: die Violin zu halten, hat etwas angenehmes und sehr	∃O∃YCgg∃]Kf\↓fAo%eHA\iC[YSα≠!β∪L∧R∧≡]_	lT→x;O$≥;Yl←]⎇0↔→ps⊂ [⊂22`2 H:oHe
dep Brust sEitw:arp	fX↓k]HAM↑AOK!CYiK8pAICMbAISα)αOS⊗K∂#∃∧#↔Mα⊗{↔.n4εn8∧9⊂βE0	n↓ISJA qWQJ↓CYfA9CGPA⊃KdA≤∧VO&Tλv.F]`D∧⊃~1.pP!`4ellundεASGPA←Q]∀A5oKαK⊂⊗.AQ&NrLVr∧≤Xv.rLW$⊗Y<l]→<@∞]Yy6N};Yy-d≥;Y∧9Yy-l:≠ ≥H⊂;7`2 den↓'aSKαc↔;∪,p4+π⊗+Iβ↔';πMβ≤∧6G≡↑ π.vDλ
-ly;⊂∩Yps∃⊂λ9rt`,, beY schnelleR Bewegung↓IKdA!C]H@4⊃S\A⊃SBA⊂i←QJX↓ISJA≥KSOJ↓WKC]∃\A↓C1hAQCPXAM←αc↔3'≡Aβ;∨&C←↔;&K∃β↔w#≠π∪f+84+o+GMmαβ←↔;p∧εvN=∞Bε'↑,6Bε]_LT≠_;L|(∃1,.;Y`⊂→2y⊂+≠y:42Zv⊗⊂)Yv12P≡;tyaZ2w⊂εB22v@⊃0zvrH:w2⊗2tsrY4w3r\⊂=:t_v:2w⊂2y7X2y2zλ;ty2⊃	FE∃42P2→yqy4\:4wwλ7s⊂:~2P9rXww2⊂≥p|P9]ssry]9P:4_z⊂:4→P;4g[4w⊂4\P42v→⊂4wεB860qYP1<P≥42P1Z4w≥εB↔12sZwεE↔≡8zwz→]FE⊃∃42P;~wv4wλ4yP8≠0qrrλ0spt[9z⊂:~2P72XuP9wH:40zλ4z⊂&~ryP9[vr{t_z⊂4wβE397[:⊂7sλ:42P≤t7zv→2y⊗⊂_w2⊂:~2P9tY2P7gλ;t4qZ⊂:42H"P∀:~4w72\z∀P9]94w3CE64r\P1wvYyP:w→2y⊂:~2P1t~w⊗⊂;Z2y2q≡P:42H;4wv~w⊂92[ptw9H:w6w]2rεE~w⊂4z≤P860XrP2{→w⊂2:\4w3P≥42P9]97w3Yyz⊂6[{2vr[:9P7Y⊂:42H0yqr[24w3H0w2εB22yqYw24w→P40w→↔⊃⊂	DW↔↔2~rP+4[v4w⊂≤wP0wλ22w⊂∩0v9P→ryz=→z⊗⊂2_yyP9ZrP0vCE;7y→2y9z→w⊂*4→tv2P→2y⊂ Xt9rvλ2z;p\P0zs≠4rsr]⊗⊂:w→⊂52w→P)rt]2V⊂0]sεE;Yv1t2\⊂20yH∀"TP≠r2y⊂→4rP5[2tw9]2P)r↑z2P4\z⊗⊂:[:2y⊂→0yP%Zw7⊂5N7vvz∞εE20Y:y1tλ24rP∃4wv4[⊗⊂0zXt⊂12↑P22yλ9z≥0\5ryz→w⊂!2]rszw→P22yλ44w0]s⊂:w→εE42\0q⊂3Yt2w2→w⊂$0[2⊂0wλ9rtw→vP'y≥2P0v≠2⎇2t]⊂:w;→y9≥:Xuz⊂1≠2tq2]↔⊃εE∪w⎇0y≥⊗⊂&2[x7v2⊂⊂↔WU2y9zXt⊂2t[2y⊂3\≥:w2≠4qt2[⊂+4w[4w9qZ:v2VFE∀ ]syq:\: Knocker,
Editha, //A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing/
(London: Oxford University Press, 1975), p.54-55.∪
.end;
Like Geminiani he warns that the violin,
.begin
.xquote;
"...must be held neither too high nor too low...The scroll of the violin
is then held on the level of the mouth or, at the highest, level with
the eyes; but it must not be allowed to sink lower than the level of
the chest.∪∪"Erstens, muss die Geige nicht zu hoch aber auch nicht
zu nieder gehalten werden....Man halte demnach die Schnecke der Violin
dem Mund, oder h:ochstens den Augen gleich:  man lasse sie aber auch
nicht tiefer sinken, als so, dass die Schnecke der Brust gleich komme."
Mozart, //Versuch /, p.55. Knocker, //A Treatise/, p.58.∪
.end;

L''Abb'e le fils'' instructions are a bit confusing;
.begin
.xquote;
"The violin should be set on the clavicle in such a manner that 
the chin is to the side of the fourth string.  It is necessary to 
lower the side of the chanterelle [E string] a bit."∪∪"Le Violon doit 
∧etre pos'e sur la Clavicule, de fa,con que le Menton se trouve du 
c∧ot'e de la quatri`eme Cord, il faut abaisser un peu le c∧ot'e de la 
Chanterelle"  L''Abb'e le fils [Joseph Barnabe Saint-Sevin], 
//Principes du Violon/ (Paris: LecLerc, 1361), p.1,∪
.end;
Boyden points out That A violin held in thiS manner would @
KeiC%]Yr@4∃gYS⊃JACo¬rAMe=Z@Ai!JAaY¬sCdAU]YKgLAShAβ;πMβ≡+∂WK.!βe¬##∃β≤¬εNrb24⊗␈≤LVr`Q%rlF≡>F␈↔∃uBπαf6cJq1Q hPdNβH⊂~~2P6p]8∧ero`Ai!JAYK→hAQC9HXAi!JAiQ∃←e@'α:Bno↑9⊗≡N≥n2ε∂,TεNpQ(λ,@y2r`-ent @QQChAαKQβOF{W3⊃∧¬f␈"}&Oα∞Mε*εlXλmP7s⊂≥42P;~wv4gλ:7wPβE37`2cefuLly s@%]GJAβ##πQ∧εv␈.L@π&.l@λ∞MβP9z~q32`. the difgeps and the srist.

@
CY
P
βO&S↔M¬##πQ∧¬vv*∞=ε␈.LDεF}LDπ&FT∞fN}M≥bhαKXL\z;C!%↑≤=-}→.c!$XY5∞|9;@∞M→(≥
∞98C!,8π2≤0v6@≠q⊂:4→P37i→s0w3Yy≥P4≠v2⊂ )t almost Encircling
but not Too fast, So that one can play notes with the hand in the
high register and can also come back."∪∪"Dass er die Viol zwischen
dem lincken Daumen und Ballen dess vorderen Fingers/gleichsam eIngeschlossen
halte/jedoch nicht zu vest/damit er mit der Hand im Fall der Noth in die
H:ohe/dann auch wiederum zuruck fahren k:onne."  Falck, //Idea/, p.190.∪
.end;
Furthermore, 
.begin
.xquote;
"Both arms should not be against the body but rather free from it so 
they can move sometimes over, sometimes under And will be able to act
lightly with agility. ∪∪"Dass er die beyden Aerme ja nicht an den 
Leib/sondern/um sich bald :uber=bald unter sich bewegen/und leicht
agiren zu k:onnen/frey von dem Leib halte."  Falck, //Idea/, p. 190.∪
.end;

Prelleur gives simple instructions, 
.begin
.xquote;
"hold the violin with your left hand about half an inch from the
bottom od its Head which is usually termed the Nut, And let it be 
between the Root of your thumb and thatof your fOpe-fInger..."
∪∪Prelh	KkHXA!Kβ#↔I1αy>C#*α7?∪-∪9α7/≠'
αnOS↔∩y1↓"d{;∪?sQβS#*XZC⊗K;S'v96?≠4K∂∀XhS'9α⊗{]α∂G+K∂!mKπK⊃c	UMEJaβA9∩pL4)v+;⊃lhP4*∂⊗{7*|4εNw>N'.∨M≥vw~≤w⊗.UDα∃&≥<Rπ&T∧6NLMF*ε≥lBεF⎇LBεODλ
-d≡;⎇.! S⊃,Nλ∩_-lλ≠→.D≥~→$	Y8rd
~9(,=≥y,]H≡;n↑H→Sn,(⊃Z-ly<H≥Yλ∃
∞;8KEeHH∧b8|[{,Uβ"Kez~→(λm9→≠Ukλ≤¬fmDaQ@εE*~2P0q≠{2P:~92rP→2yqi~x:4g[9P9rYvP:7H9zssYyz⊂*~0z⊂*~2P72XuP7sλ:42FB;4wf~w⊂6p↑P40{→P92y]2r⊂4[⊂:42H47v6≠{P12]9rrgλ:42P≥4:vqλ0w2⊂≥42FE~w22|λ34w3Yy↔εEβE&w⎇_y:⊗⊂~7{r{→y⊗⊂)→s:z2\P:44\T⊂9p↑ts3@≥40z≥42P7→quP9Z7zv2λ12FE12st[εE↔<≤zwz2NFE⊃π↔42f→⊂4w⊂≤zqt⊂_P6pw≠2y⊂ "etween thumb and index finger thatit
rests on o@9JAgS⊃JA←\↓iQJA	CYXA¬hAiQ∀AECg∀A←LAQQJASαs∪↔an3';∨/⊃1βπv!β?8hSS#∃ε{S#↔∩βG'∪*βπ>≥≥g∨"∞Mε*π↑∞ε/∩∞↔↔α
xbπ&Tπ&G]\"εV⎇≥g"b.W"ε≥dεvz∞|↔Hh.Mw.≡
≥f:πMRπ≡=≥bπ>
_6Bε-⎇⊗w~∞Mε*πM∞Vn∩≥f"ε≥lF/B\m⊗v>↑$π&}|↑FF/%aPU&Tπ&G]\"εo↑>Bεv}Dππ⊗⎇,V∨"∞Mvzεl≡"ε␈l↑"π&Tε6Nl|W∩n-|↔⊗"Df␈∩
}FF/.⎇↔≡(Q-↔"π⎇}Vf"

⊗v&↑$π&FT∞εf∂≤↑"ε∞lDπ⊗}$∞FF*λtπ∨'-≥f:ε|dεO'4∞F}vUdα¬&Tεf␈|↑"h.↔↔"
|bπ&TεF∞lDαFv≥\VgJD∞vF/,TεO"
-vNw4∞FF*≡&jJ
↑W∨"∞,Vn∞≥dε7⊗\U@hV≥lBπ&Tπ6N⎇M⊗rε↑↑7"εm}Bεf≤Tε}r
≡Bbεm}"εNd∞6zεM⎇⊗v:∞Mε*εl↑'6/4∞vFN=↓PV≡⎇mf.∨D∞FF*≡&jε≥lBε6≥lv/↔4∞v␈.LDε⊗*∞∞&/∨<\Bπ&||W&F↑$ε∞vD∞6zε=⎇g'⊗≤>F."AQ&∞vD∞FF*∞MεO⊗D⊗v"mw/↔M∧ε6Nl|W↔~∞∞&/6]nF."n&}j∞>G⊗/L=εNvudα¬>T∞6.(Q,F∞NO∀ε/F≥↑εf/4
v2π>\6Bε=NVo∨∀∞εf∂≤↑'~b∞⎇εzεm≥f"ε↑lW↔OM
⊗v:M⊗66≤>Vg Q,&.≡≡↑6*πMWJπ,↑7'⊗≤>Bπ&]W≡.NlW~ε/∀ε∞r≡v←>≡,Bπε}=↔&N⎇dε}2∞Mε*πm≥vfNaQ&∞vD∞FF*-w:r$α1≤&↑$∧?⊗≤lbbε|LW∩πm≤Vfn]∞"ε&↑$∧F∞N4ε&/$
fN}M≥bεo↑>2εv≤=π h,⎇F.N=∧ε.Nl]R∧↔'.V>.D
⊗rεM≤Rε>≥o&*∧≥f"ε
≥f.Nl|Vf.|↑Bbπ=⎇f&/-dπW>≡<6F.aQ&&.dλF∂.\]bπ.lD¬V.≤|V6Nl|W∩b≥bε&↑$ε∞vL↑&r¬<]↔&*≥bε&]Tε}⊗↑-b¬&]⊗f*LW_h(L↔.n]lvfN\N2ε∞n>F.FUDε&NT	ε∂/D⊗⊗/%Dπ>.L=ε*ε≥dε&/$λg.>TF/∩	⊗v"LVph(L↔.n]dπ.vD&.N|\fNv|↑"πW↑<⊗nn]dεCV≥lv/"D	6.Nl↑7>.|↑2ε⊗↑''.G,Ub∧&↑$∧&∂]\PhV↑↑7~εm≤6G"∂.Rπ6≤]BβW\,W∩εL≡2∧?-≤f6⊗L≡BεF↑.f␈↔,≤v.s$
6}w>DεFNlLW↔"↑"εNQQ%∨ε≤]F.rD∞Vv",VvN]↑Bε&↑$∧:¬<←↔&*LVr∧=H⊗v:d∧∧&/$	εNwL↑&*¬MVNbLW∩∧≥f h,≤&/∩¬
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εN/,NW⊗≡∧∞sW/,LVrεM≤R∧v↑.f.rD∞v.f=Rε&]`∧∂⊗T∞Vv"M⊗(h(m⊗v>↑$πW/<≥Vn.d∞f/⊗-≥f&.eDε∞rY⊗v∞lLW∩ε|↑#W.=<W"bL⊗'/,=αε>↑>ε/↔,↑Bbπ]l@hVm⎇F>f≤=αε&↑$π6N↑.F*ε|LW∩ε=LVNvTλfNv|↑"π≡≤=αε∂↑?'/∨N,V≡↑]d∧>.
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⎇↔⊂h.<VF.d∞CV∞⎇M⊗≡BM⊗*∧←Voε]DεFN↑.f}r≥bπ≡⎇L6F.d∞εg.↑Vr¬>
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G&∂∨>G"π>]≥Bπ≡≤Tε&NT
fN}M≥bπ.lDε&.dλ&}>]dπ≡z∞]f>/<=εN≡>APVF≥NF.rDF∂∨4∞6N*∞=⊗≡B∞<Vf↔>Dε&∞N↑&≡B]⊗w≡=∞#V∞m<Vrr	]wV∂.EBαzzlW↔∨\=αzb∞¬c+"b1PRv]lCXh!Q$b:x≤&∩>T
F*εm≥G~ε≡4ε∞g=tπ∂.≡LRε/∞
FN≡≡DεNr

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lV≡Z∞=ε␈.LDε⊗*
Vf"∞⎇↔&F}↑Bε6},6*ε,↑G>.]dπ&FT∞FG.\$ε∞vD∞FF*m↔↔∨D↓PVV⎇≥g"α∞
ε∞f≥lv*J
|bπ&TεNvL←αε6≥lv/∩d∧¬&FT∞ε∂↔D
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↔'~m↔↔∨AQ&V}≥nBrα	⎇f*ε↑↑7"ε\≥6*π>↑&*πM↔"εTπεf≤<W~πMRπ&∞]V∩ε}∞ε␈≡≡LRπ&T∧
nl≡G/⊗≥APV}d∞FF*-w/⊗M⎇b¬\t∞7'⊗≥lujr"22∩remF*∧\≥f≡FTF}ODF/',Tπ&.nTπ≡∞n4π'⊗}∧ε6␈,<PhV]nG⊗*
LRπε}\6*ε↑Dεf
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De sa↓aeK[%AKeJ↓aQCY¬]OJv↓←\AI=ShA←	gKemα+Aβ∪*βC#π≡+@∩εLTπε␈\8Rπ6≡5Vε
↑m↔4¬ES∩A"P↔_z:y2[⊂2:P⊂4πurdon."A_NO¬EDOJ↓YJAMαK3M⊃αy6CKNs∂'C,ε2zb∞¬c
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4¬⊗v>↑$εv∞=εNG,]b∧≡]Hλ-≤z→;D:;Yl]|N]-]9=ml:→(π∞8Y4D→;@⊂∀ptz2[⊂3v"Zqt9p[P9qd≥rq2wFE0zXt⊂22\3ryz_v:⊂2~ryrf_2w⊂7~rr2y→9:q`+en/daqs ja die n:achste nicht zuglEich mit
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:<@
\=~≠lNh~;L=≥9→$z_<NNh≠yD∞Z;{
≥H→R-ly<C!,Yx<LNh≥z.Mλ~;NL<]X-Nh≠9,≡⎇<Y,D≠yQED∀≤Y-M→=<D=Y0↔λ4w9z≤:qz9H:42P≤z:r2[:⊂:7H0r5:\zεE4~yP19~p3rP_<P6w]4w3@~z⊂⊃0H64z:≠2P3 /rwarder or backwarder", so that the
distafcE from the scroll to the bridge matches that In the tutor.
Prelleur's fifgerbgard diaeram is eSpeciallp∩A%]ieS≥kSMN0ACfA%hAaY¬GKf~)K]ACI[←]SA]Oi∃f@QgUGPACLA∧GDαβπ;⊃∧	

¬∧Qβ∪N3∪↔K.sQβ3|≠πS'}sM↓iwh,←ε∞o
H	%D≥~→$λHx@
≡h≤≥.D~~9m<H⊂~~0w⊂*~2P QHTW	IPw⊂4g≥2y2y]4w3@ study kf
PrelLeur's fingerboard was done bi Davi@⊂A¬←s⊃K\@QMKJAQ%bACeQSGYJ0@~+εαCK↔fc↔WIbα∨↔7L¬fN∞m∃Bε∞l@λ	.<⎇λ	≥]≠{L≡~;{D∧ikλ¬uu~→$	[y<Ml9λ∪lD≥~→$∧λλβ!(990→~qpw⊂∪zyt`#ologicad Society/$ Fall, 1951 p."02-219)
IN thiS study, Boy`	K\↓ISgGα{[↔K~βS#π ∧π&FT
f␈&↑4εn∂-<V"ε/∀¬π⊗]MF//!Q&n8<⎇.,(≠qL@⊂4w:→y;0v≤P;t4Xt⊂1f≠yrv<H0x8)≠|4vp]2P:4≠yrP7Yα the just
antonation system∞∪

LeopOld MozartdemoNstrates abit Od musical snobbery by scoffing at
the ppactice oF marking or fretting the fingerboard: 
.begin
.xquote;
"If a
pupiL has f of such an
Extravagance.  If, howeveR, he lacks thiS, he is useless for music
and it Were better he took a wood axe than a violin in his hand."∪∪
"Hat der Sch:uler ein gutes musikalisches Geh:or;  so darf man sich
nicht solcher Auschweisungen bedienen;  fehlEt es ihm aber An diesem, 
so ist er zur Musik untauglich, und er wird besser eIne Holzart als die
Violin zur Hand nehmen."  Mozart, //Versuch/, p.58. Translation: Knocker,
//A Treatise/, p.62.∪
.end;

The amount of information on shifting varies.

Mersenne describes which fingers stop which notes, but gives no directions
on the positioning of the hand.  He merely states,
.begin
.xquote;
"...It is necessary so to adjust the fingerq on each place of the
Fingerboard so that the tones endure a proportion as well regulated
αas if there were frets as on the viol".∪∪"il faut telhement aiuster
les doigts sur chaque lieu du manche, que les sons pep¬gkC⊃K]hAβ+;∀4UβK?C␈∪S'?rβπWO≡Iβ'.qβK↔>a∨↔∃πW¬β~9∨'1πIβπ[}KQβ∪/→βS?.≠#↔Mε≠?77*ββ∧∀Tc¬α[L{3∃9∩↓α7↔↔≠↔;;*a↓=>FK7∨vK∃αWvK[↔K≡+33∃zaβA9β	aM9ααSKπw≠3πSN{9iα≡CπC7∞q14VβαS#*α??←→β?9∧K;OS↔+7↔≠'→≥≥1π↓9IQ
pL4)v+;⊃lhR#∃βn+;S'}sMβSF)β↔c&+;O'}qβ?→π##∃β6{WKSBβ≠';>+I04Rs↔∨Np4);GW?S+X4)
N1β?;*βπ∪[∞s∂↔MεKQαo&C∃β≠␈+KS!ε3';∨/∩uβ∂f{O↔I¬#=βSF)βKN#∨∃β&Cπ84W##∃βε{O'SN{9β?2α	β7Jaβ'Qεkπ/↔~βS#∃∧→βO?bβWQβ6	1βπv!βS#.qβS#*α⊂4+f	βK∃π≠?19ααS#W~aβS#*β['?fK9β#∂→β¬β⊗;∨∃ε{→β¬εs';↔&+↔;SBqλLM∃≠%β?ph+1≥>[π;≡)βC3/→βCK/→β∪Uε≠#↔[∞c↔Qβ∂+∃β3*β3'↔*β∪U↓z{7%=bβ'1β6'Qβf(4*
αy?O?bβWQβ6	=1β/!βCWO→β3∃∧!↓=?f	βK∃π≠?1=Z↓β∪∃εkπ;'/∪∃βG.)β3∃¬3'?3}p4+β
β1≥∨/≠S↔;')k∃β"9∨W;*α∪'cv+W≠'/≠7∃9∩↓α7↔↔≠↔;;*a↓=>FK7?vK∃=1π↓9Ea∩p4*S⊗;O3∂#'?9R↓α∂#∂β7π9b↓
S#*α??←→β?9∧K;OS↔+7↔;'→	1βαqEaIq_4);.s⊃l4P04*63∂-ε;⊃απ∪↔33/+IβO.+5βSzβCK↔≡+;Qβε{O'SN{9βCfg';:β?;3JβπMβ
βS#↔␈∪e84T3π3∂Zβ';O'∪W∂S~`4);⊗+∨'8hQ;cG.{S∃lhQ
←#.qβ'9ε	β7W≡K∂π1πβ'↔∂*β;?S/→β?∂∨+Iβπ⊗{[∃β&C∃β≠N3S!β}qβS#*βOSKNs≥1hRo←#N≠!β'≥iβ#'>C↔Iβ&Cπ9hS∂π9ε{K∪'vK'3Jβ∃β⊗+π∂#.!β←'&Aβ≠?/⊃β≠'v;↔KMbβ?;∃εkWOQε+∪∨∃π+AβSF)β#πv 4+πv!β';∨#↔π⊃ε{→βSF)βS#O∪⊃β≠Ns∨↔IbβCWQπ##∃β6{K↔≠Ns∨↔Iε{9βSF)β¬iαβS=β>x4+?6+Iβ⊃π#=β→ε{Iβ≥ε{;∃βo+OQβ.#∨∃β/↓βS#*β#π;"β≠WK&C↔Iβ∞s⊃βC/!βS#*β≠?K.3';∨/⊂4+?rβS#∃ε!9λL~∩←π;rβ'9β.K;↔5↓0Z7W≡K∂π06KO∂#.qαOQW+∂-12;?P6+9?←.c∂#∃εW→β&+H4(12GW'w Y6O∞KS↔9εAk?#/⊃?π3~β7π;~β7'Qε#↔;↔rα['↔∩α≠';>+K913?K∪NsπK'ε(X4+/∪K↔'≡C↔9β↑9?∨/≠↔Sk"βO↔gv!?O=εkWOMεkπ9β&K∃α#∞s⊃β#Ns↔'9π∪W∂/.q?W;"βπ9β∨#πSPhS∪↔O~α∪K''#↔9α6K;∨↔↔→?∪↔rβ[?K&+K↔9εW→β&Mβ¬π≠↔Sk.qiαO}cS↔9ε↔Iπ≠'∂!↓0Z;?!3↔84V3';∪.q?∪'*↓kW/⊃β∪π~β⊃?O≠Mβ↔';π9βNqβ∪↔rβ[?K&+K↔9∧3';∨/⊃βπW2β∪πMε!βO↔'S↔99⊂h*≠πf≠-1↓zz'∪↔
y1βAs	eA8_h);↔v!l4*π∪↔33/+Iβ∪/≠∂K'⊗+MβSF)β≠?/∪S!β6K;∨↔∩β↔cS.sO'?raβW"βπ3Ozβ';∂g+∪↔Mε{9β#O_4+≠Ns∨↔K⊗{πK⊃ε≠#πK"β;?S/→βWAπ#=α¬2q↓α#*β#πMεC'Mβ␈;9β;∞k↔Mβ6{IβSF+O∃β≡C'≠S≠X4);⊗+∨'8hQ;cG.{S∃lhQ
g∃ε3'KO"βO#'7!β←#N≠!β'~β∂π3f+⊃βSF)β#πf1βO#N3Qβ'~βWC?rβS#∃β+S!βfK;∃α[k7?∪/∪84+&e↓Kv!βC?≡KS'?uim↓β&C∃β←F{3∃β≡C'≠QεKMβWε{9βg*↓cS!εc';∃¬Yw7?&+K9hQOK⊃πβ?O'&K?:uZβg∃β&{W3*βO#'7!β'Mε{9βg*↓E←SBβ3';*αmw7}#↔K9β;S!βε{O'SN{:ulhSS#∃εcπOQπ≠#'≠"β'Mβ/β?9βN)↓IC&Aβ3'v)αmwn{∪↔Kr↓cS!πβ?O'&K?:uZβ;?S*βS#π"β'84U≠#'≠&K;≥βN{Uβ7/≠QβC/!βg?/⊃β≠'↔≠Qβ≠Ns∨↔Iε{9βSFQβ3Ns∃β?∩α;?S*β←#↔⊗)βg∃π≠#'≠ h+'Mπ#=β*β∪?;*aβπ;"βS#↔pβ7?[*βS#∃π;#?3*β#π;"β#'∨F+Iβπ≡≠?K∪Ns∨3er⊂LNC⊗+3#↔/⊃04)zzS#∃∧KQ=bβA9Qq_4);.s⊃l4T∪?S!εWS#␈∪Eβ#∂3∃β∪/≠∂K'⊗+⊃β↔G#K↔7,ceβ#N;!βC␈≠'S'}sM↓5π##∃βn{∪↔Kr↓WS!πβ?O'&K?9hS'9α63∂-?→β∂π≡)1βπv!↓cSBβ'9α¬∪↔33/+I∨Mr↓αS#*β7WOL≠π1β/Cπ7Cd+Eβ'rβS#∃π#←<4Tk↔S#}#M1βF{←↔[-⊃1βS.c1β¬∧∧FN6lXL]]λ∀nM|↑+D∧⊃X;=h≠Y.l<H∪\=Y0→H34y9]εA8'\tz4w[⊗⊂0w→⊂(92[42zyλ72{2\⊂3wb\β hiGher @QQC\AFFl\4∀~*n{;S↔≤¬F∞O,TεF∂4
fzπlXL,9λ⊂∩→yqy4\:4ww≤P7s⊂≤t4s*~w3Wλ$2P$[1v:r→yP0@ diagram
@=HABAβ3'?3Nqβ≠'v;↔K|K⊃β>KS!βf{∂πSL{;Mβ}1β;∨&+EβCe+Mβ≠Ls∨πKNs↔Mβ/↓βS=εC'∨ hR
@2
xD∞~→(λT≤⎇≤M≥Yk@∧
~~<d
<h⊃M≥Yy4L\λλm∧¬≤≤[l,8[≡$∞z9{M≤↑:;LT_(⊂∪≠zy:4λεE34[3ry⊂→|:2w≤tsw∀KεEεE⊃8¬pont coNta`∪]LA]↑A%]M←e5CiS←8A←iQ∃`AiQ¬\ABAβ3↔Ke¬#↔∪'␈+Mβ[-∪π⊃∧#↔O∂⊗KCS'}p4+|dπ&FT
f␈&↑4ε.∞=∧ε&Nl|W∩ε≡4ε∞⊗LTπ&Z∞
F∂J
→bεF≡4π'>t∧'ε␈=~FN}n4"αG=
w>r
→bπ&QPV.l}&∂6≥lw~Jd∧∧F*
→f≡g\LW
ε∀
7&∂L]V.wD	vrπMRε/∞LVw≡≥⎇bε}d∞FF*mw/↔M∧ε&Nl|W⊂h,≥Fn␈>Dε∂~≥bε∞nLW↔ε
}V>GD	⊗rε
≡2ε/↑&≡O<Tπ≡.>M⊗}rd∧¬&FT
V∂∨L↑"bπ⎇Vrε≡=6. Q,'JπMRπ∨N\F.wD	ε␈:
⎇f*π,\⊗≡F↑4∧≠∩
⎇bπ&T∧*π>N&NvtWGεL≥⊗w≠!Q"v⊗\⎇⊗ph%oπ∂.}LSXh$)↔"ε≡4εv.<↑7≡∂/∀π&z←π&.lDhWMRεf≡NFf*m⊗v>↑$ε&␈⎇nv∂⊗D∞FF*M↔∨&≥l6*π⎇
⊗≡B
≡2εn≡-6."n&}j∞Mε*∧$∞FzπMR∧~↓Q&}r∞Mε*εm≥f>/,-v∂⊗D
v2πMRπ6≥⎇FNrd"1~∀≥Dε6∂↑Dε&/<<Vv',Tεf*∞W&ODF}ODF*εL⊃PV&≡>F∞v<Tπ∂.∀W∨"
\↔↔∂T|V*εL↑π.O4
F*π=∀εW/>≡R:>∀
B:?↑Dπ∨/$
F*ε\≥f≡FTG*Q*fN}M⎇br∩∧λG/ε⎇nBbαuzπ⊗Nl=↔ε/5uBπαfEa_h%lVv#1Q hPd≡}.&/'LTr?~∞N&.∂M≡6*b∞⎇εN≡∧
↔4→[tD∞~→(
]|Y(≤≥X;L<9λ⊂→]8r2w≥⊂4w1[8¬des actual
Position playing, 
.begin
.xquote;
"Thus _Aβ#=βπα86.vD
Fzε4⊗⊗␈lTπ&FTλ6F∞nLW⊗.MD¬↑
∞>G-9Yw!QX∧r⊂~yP72Xryyp\<P:7H860qYP:42H34y9]⊂34`.ger On the g; and to go to d, the
firs@PAMS]≥KdA←αqβS#*β¬mα&C∃βO∞k∃β?↔≠↔K[∂#'?9∧3?Iβ&C∃β?&C↔Iβ∧{@≡OM→vw~d"1_h$(⊗Nw=∀πε␈↑$εn}nLWαε⊂λ
Di⎇5∧→<|n↑h≠⊂$λz_;NL<Y;
L(~0⊗λ30zzλ6rz:≤2P6 % premiere
doigt suR le sol eT pour adlep∧ACj↓$OJA1JAae∃[SKd↓I←SOPAgkd↓YJA→∧\@A→∧AZ	K5J~∃←	gCem¬iSO\↓aWkd↓YKfA¬kieKLAa←g%iS←]L\DAπ=`K↔'#∃1↓zz1≥≥<+∂?3*y1βAs→](LhQ;↔; π0hUMW≡(~0↔≤z9:a]4sw9H0y2P~w1v*Y2r⊂4[⊂:42H9rq`/nd parp o@_AiQJ↓i`↔S|ε"αB)
w:πMtπεF∨∀εNpQ(

(∩5≥~8;D∞⎇≡;TJ+@⊂λ&zytXpv⊂ %xaeples taka the student all The way up th∞Ai!J~¬gα+[↔;&AβC?≡KS'?rp4(Q(v.n≥m⊗∞v∀λ
-n≤[y∞\y<h∞M→(→
≤YY0→→w:⊂ 0ositions in anexercise Which  shews
the difderent Ways of stopping the same note, and diqcovers at the same Time 
that Transposition of the Hand [i.e. shifting] consists in pasSing from one Order
tk another." (As he explained earlier, "an order is a certain Number oposing the Hand."  They correspond to 
modern day positions.  For example, the second order=second position, the third
order=third position, etc.) His exercises take the student up to the seventh 
order, and are meticulously thorough, covering all possible fingerering 
combinations in the shifts.  On shifting up he instructs,
.begin
.xquote;
"...Care is to be taken that the Thumb always remain farther back than the 
Fore-finger; and the more you advance in the other Orders the Thumb must be at
a greater Distance till it remains almost hid under the Neck of the Violin."
.end;
In another exercise, Geminiani writes out scales using numerous "transpositions
of the Hand" ascending and descending, and makes a rather intriguing statement.
about downshifting.
.begin
.xquote;
"It must here be observed, that in drawing back the Hand from the 5th, 4th,
and 3d Order to go to the first, the Thumb cannot, for Want of Time, be
replaced in its natural Position;  but it is necessary it should be replaced 
at the second Note."∪∪Geminiani, //The Art of Playing the Violin/, p.2-3.∪
.end;
This could, perhaps, be used to refute the crawling shift
of Sol Babitz in which he shifts downward first with the thumb, following 
with other fingers.

Tartini, surprisingly enough, includes some information on shifting in the 
Italian edition of his //Trait'e/.  He suggests that multiple shifts be done
between staccato notes rather than legato so as not to interrupt the smoothness
of the line.
.begin
.xquote;
"As regards to changing position, it Iq impossible to give any hard and
fast pules.  The student qhould adopt whatevep∧A[KQQ←HA!JAMS9IfA[=chAG=[EOeQCEYJ4∃S\A∃CGPA
CgJX↓C]HA!JAgQ=kYHAβ##↔K.3?K∃πβCπ∂&K∂¬β&C∃β#∞s⊃βOFK∪SM∧K9β↔4+Cd∀Uβ?OOL∧&f*∞|↔Jπ=tπ&F≡@λ
(~0→H892x_y2r→5y⊂ %very qiteation that↓[CrA¬eSgJ8\\~∃αK⊂∩πMRεF≥lBεF≡4π&@h_Y$∞z~1NL9λ∀l↑Y<X-D≥~;,↑h→≥.-;Y`∀≤_<n<9y+∧
=λ⊂→Z7zv2λ12FE→7w2P_2z;rYw⊂:4→P9z0Xqpz7H70∂tes( not the legato _A%\A←e⊃KdAi!ChA]<AOCaLACeJ4∃QKCIHAS\↓iQJA1CiiKHAGCG∀\D&&	≥KYY<Ag[C9SGCe∀A]O\↓IKmJ↓iK]KIcRAe∃O←YB↓giCE%YJX~)[BAE%g←O]∧ACICQiCeg$ABAcUKYY↑0AGQJ↓]KYX≤O←GG¬gS←]$AeSKMGJAa%jAG←5←I↑X↓←]IJ↓gR~∃⊃KmJA→CeJA1↑AgiUIS↑Aα#'O7∞s'∂π⊗)β'9π#WSSJβ3%βn{∪%βε+Aβ↔∨≠↔Iβ≡+7CK*βCK?w#=βπ"β?∨;Hh+∂π≤yβC?∨≠¬βπ≡≠πβ↔⊗)9λLhQ;↔;!X4(∀TK9β#O→β3↔'#↔Iβ&yα7π&#↔3↔v	α3?n∪πK∪Ns%β#*β∪↔O≤ε&N⊗↑4π&FTFN6lZ&.wDλm
9]≤g1"]~T~_;d≤z~,Nλ≥z.Mλ≥~T→Z<N>λ→R-ly<H
⎇H⊃k∧∞~→(∞⎇≠{→$∞z~9ND≥z=
∧≥~→$Z<\nA YR-ly<H
⎇H⊂+∧∞~→(M⎇8[T≤z~,nλ≥z.Mλ≥~T→Z<N>λ→Z-ly<H
⎇H⊂K∧;Y∞M→(⊃M}<]~↓Q\≠p→Zz4wwλ;tz4λ:42P→4y9`4 finger o@8Aε@Q¬YXAi!SfA←8AiQJ↓
AgiIS]NR8@A)Q∀A]C[∃f~∃←_AiQJ↓gQSMQ`
β∂⎇∪K↔Oε{;⊃β&yβCK/≠↔;Q∧∧F∂Jε-f"bε>&"bεNFBε≥lBβ/M∧πε␈=≡FN}n4hW,↑7ε.>M↔6.O∃bα¬M
↔
π<\Vo~∞Mrε⊗T
FF*
H
-]=λm|H∩T_9≥M≡y<k↓QKH_L\z;C!%↑≤=-}→.c!$[8:m≥Yh⊂d∞z=~∧∞~→(m<\u∧Z;Yl↑H≥<
⎇H≥~T→Z4N>λ≤⎇∞
;Yfd;Y
≥Y→1,Eβ"]

<h~.∀_(∀l<;→(
≥H≥z
≤zλ∞⎇→;@∂≥⎇(_.,(→P∀\6V⊂<[zP6p↑P12P≤ptr⊂≥7P12CE2ty]92yyH7s⊂:~2P3$[3ry1≠py2↔λ	I`y\tqzy_z0P(_yytP_v60P≤zpy:_P1wfλ894v[P4w⊂βE!yw[30zzλ9zv⊂_pw:4[7]P⊂→P4w⊂≤wvvpH8zr`3ta `e unaScala di smaniCature, di
cui quando ella se ne sia fatta padrona, pu`o dire di esser padrona del
manico." Tartini, //Lettera/.  Translation, Jacobi, //Letper/, p.137.∪
.end;
Tartini's names for the shifts are the same 
as those of Prelleur, but they do not refer to the same positions.

MozArp's treatmant of shifting is disappointingly perfunctopy.  He¬
@∃qaYC%]fAe∃Cg←]LAMOdαβC?OLεFN}d∞εf∂≥≥f:αβ(%D≠Y0l↑|z0~≡P⊂λeG, no@QKfA[¬]r@~)YKOKHAQS]∃bACE=mJAi!JAgi¬ILR@HXAG←αs[↔≠L∧Vv≡T¬π&z∞	F∂J}&.∂Dλ\<≤j!QLk@λ]→9x-ly(
<9]_,-9→(
mβz2iH4πcc@U`K≥lrε≡Mz6.gα(⊂~≠pπether c@¬\A←Mβ#↔8Q(λLT≤≠⊂⊂↑p¬d @∃CgSYβIβ >dλml(≤p~≤αi`≥NαI0∩α	]wV∂,¬⊂→2yq`2ibes 3 po@MSiS←αs@~@λ≥z
⎇→#"N
βyt`4ion (=m`∨I∃` 2∧∧p→→⊂87`3itio@8RP⊃βF3→β∧¬w==~0↔[⊂⊂λ-mo`	Ke8@e@; ∧πε@|z0~~ww∀VβE0w2λ1wvx≠zs2 ph∂gSβ#'?9αC¬β7Lππ'<Y(
|β⊂:4→P34`2pπhAi]↑R\@↓⊃JAO%mKfAβ#←=β|επ&Nβ{\d↓α@
f@=`	β∨,εG&NβY`⊂~w:7P≥t7v % po`'%iS@?p∧ε}r∞Mε*∧TλnNX∧w3H⊗P9d~pεti@9H
βSzα¬@*↓Q'>OMλ∞M→(⊂∪~y9z d¬S@;>+@∩b
xD∞≠h⊂FT≥z0~~⊂:42H9rq`/nd fInger. If @QQJA[U`∂'∂∞`4+C∂≠Gπ∨*βK↔G,¬↔,<h⊂$
~9z↑H≤z
≤]λ∞M→(≥M≥{~;M≡⎇λ⊂⊂Yppw is given a cho@%GJ\~)⊃JAGα9βπ≤∧6.vD∞W≡NβY`⊂≥42P#~w3ri~w3P_K⊂→⊗⊂T⊂→ελ2z1Wλ7y⊂→⊂→V⊂⊗⊂→Vλ2z1WβE$4yH6zytXpv⊂"↑0vx6→yP:0ZrP:4→P9z:Y2w:⊂≥x⊂:7H:42P
z4⊂8≠ytz4[w⊂∀ M∀WεEβE&∪SPq1∪rH62P3~v9P4[:97r≥qryP≤7ytz~ww⊂8≠0|tw→P;tz~⊂34w→ry2rλ:;wP≠qz0{→FE9qXv2yP≥x⊂:7H"[↔⊂λ$4yP≠0q2v≠4w3P≠s⊂:4→P87yZz4ww≤P4yP≤0z42\⊂9tw→zv0y⊂37yβE44yH⊃34y≤z⊂87\tz4w[⊃⊂1w\92yx≠w29P≥7P:4→P6wr→y7⊂2_|P⊃9Yqww2λ87yt]4ww⊃εE$2H0v9wH4w1v≥r2yP_P34w→ry2rλ#QQP≠tw7yλ9qpv→P:4:\P4w:≤7r:qZw3P:~2P6wY2y7εB20|Pλ40v3λ87yt]4ww⊃λ∀42P→7ryP≠7z⊂6_q2v⊂≥44yP≤qpv2H0yP1→tw3P~w⊂0w≡P87yZz4ww
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Corrette, whose treatise gives instructiOns on playing in the French and 
Itadian styles also includes fAirli detailed descriptions of the FrencH
and Italian bow grips.  He even includes apicture oF a bow (fIg.13):	
.skip 7;
.begin
.xquote;
"The Italians hold the bow at three quArters [of its length], putting the 
four fiNgers at letper A and the thumb underjeath at@; and the French
hold It at↓iQJAMSIJA=H	βSF)β≠K}91βC/#S';:βS#∃ε3'KO"aβO↔≤¬vv"Dλλ-lλ≥~
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PA[←IJACW%\Ai↑↓iQJA=]JA[=IKe\αβ['?dK;'O'→βGO*aβ←'&AβS#(h#OSL∧6@4→Z0→≠v<P 'paspEd beTween↓iQJAQQc@7⊂∧ε∞vDλ

(≠:,L≠→(@4p∞ger.  The i@9IKpAα;⊃β⊗K;≤4T∧fNv|XNP0q2H290x→p⊂7`6er the bo@\AChAβ##∃β≤+∂?; ∧ε@-βtw:⊂0w2λ842P≠4z26→P34`.ear @IKgi@_h ⊗↑dλ

(≤u
≤zkC!By the time L''Abb'e le fils publishes his method, the French bow grip
seems to have gone out of use;
.begin
.xquote;
"It is necessary to place the tip of the little finger on the part of the bow 
which holds the frog.  The index [finger] should be positioned in such a way
that the bow is in the middle of the second joint of this finger which, in
order to have more force should be a bit removed from the others.  The thumb
should be opposite the middle finger and sustain all the weight of the bow.
In placing the bow on the strings the rod should not be perpendicular to the
hair but it should tilt a bit toward the side of the fingerboard."∪∪"Il faut
poser le bout du petit doigt sur la partie de l'Archet qui tient `a la Hausse;
l''Index doit ∧etre plac'e de fa,con que l''Archet se trouve au milieu de la
seconde phalange de ce doigt, lequel, pour avoir plus de force, doit ∧etre un
peu 'eloign'e des autres.  Le pouce doit ∧etre vis-`a-vis le doigt du milieu,
et so∧utenir tout le poids de l''Archet: en posant l'Archet sur les Cordes, la
baguette ne doit pas se trouver perpendiculairement au dessus du Crin, mais elle
doit pancher un peu du c∧ot'e de la Touche."  L''Abb'e le fils, //Principes/,
p.1.∪
.end;

.SS|Bowing|
Instructions on bowing are often amusing, particularly in the elementary 
tutors.

Mersenne suggests  "...the hand which holds the bow ought to be at least 
equal in speed to the left..."∪∪"...la main qui tient l''archet doit estre
du moins esgale en vistesse `a la gauche..."  Mersenne, //Harmonie/ p.183.
Translation, Chapman, //The Books on Instruments/, p. 241.∪

Falck's observations seem a bit obvious,
.begin
.xquote;
"The stroke lasts the note's value long, satisfying and even on the
strings, not too close to the bridge, but also not too far from it."
∪∪"die Striche nach der ⊗⊗Not⊗en ⊗⊗Valor⊗ und Geltung fein lang/satt und
gleich auf den Saiten/nicht zu nahe am Steeg/auch nicht zu ferne davon
f:uhren"∪
.end;
He suggests playing coloratura passages and quick runs at the tip where the
bow is light.∪∪"die ⊗⊗Coloratur⊗en und geschwinde L:aufflein vornen/wo der
Bogen leicht ist/machen und streichen."  Falck, //Idea/, p.191.∪
He also gives some elementary bowing rules (downbow at beginnings of measures
except after a rest and for groups of odd numbers of notes)

Muffat states: 
.begin
.xquote;
"...all the finest masters, regardless of their nationality agree with
each other that the longer, steadier, sweeter, and more even the bow
stroke is, the finer it is considered;"∪∪"De plus quoyque tous les meilleurs
ma∧itres de quelle nation qu''ils soient, tiennent d''un commun consentement,
que plus le trait est long, ferme, egal, et doux, plus il est a estimer..."
Muffat, //Florilegium Secundum/, p.45.∪
.end;
His treatise is, of course, most well known for its instruction on the bowing
of French dances - the tyrannical "rule of the downbow", designed to coordinate
the bow strokes of large groups of string players.

Prelleur gives no instructions on holding the bow or on the bow stroke.
He merely includes a section (very similar to that of Falck) on various
common bowings.
Monteclaire adds hiq plea to that↓←DA≠∃egK]9JAgi¬iSMNα`4);⊗+↔'aQ"gG≡Yw&+1Q"∧ODλ
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G/_Q*`&OLTεvJ∞
G/~
LVw&]\Vw"∞≡V*εL↑2ε&⎇≡G
εLTεf

\⊗Nr|↔.≡UBε≡≡ ε~:|↑7"ε]`ε≡.L⊃PW∂\Tε≡}n=↔∨&T
F
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≥bε
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|bπ≡⎇lw~ε≡DεO_Q-f.≡↑>6∂↔∀∞Fzε,\vNr∞Mε*ε-}rπ∨N-v↑/4∞vO&∧∞7>.↑Mf/∨5Dπ∨',]f?&]bεOD↔"Q.FF*
]⊗&&LUBε∞lDε6Nm≡6BbO⊗Nvud!→~*
w/∩∞M↔⊗/$G*π=⎇bε'T
fN}M⎇bbε≥APV6≡↑Bπ&≡,W∩ε↑Dπε␈↑>6/∩LRε?,≥f'~=w/π4B:<≡,6F/EDεn∞≡4ε":}]f*ε\≥fN/,QPV?,≤6N/↑<Rε/D⊗?∩|\⊗⊗fUebrtL≥g~εL↑2π≡≡,⊗⊗∞lLW~bλ≤F∞>≥uB∧f≡,v{Z↑Bε∂↑N&/_Q*εN.<↑2ε&Tvx'↑EBεNDf∂/Df∞O,Tεf/4
&}vL↑2b∧-L⊗v≡↑2bε↑D∧v}≡,W~ε≡lV~εLQPV?,≥f'~λ=w/π4B:<≡,6F/DW"ε]lff/$	F/~∞=vw~∞>W∩εL∀ε6Ned∧n∞≡4πε␈↑$εf/1Q&6Nl≥Ff/4W"πL↑&nNl≥↔≡}n4ε&*=ε∞wN5BεNDf∂/D6}n\]f≡/$
F*ε=}WαεDtt∂⊗=W h,≡f.~Mw.≡↑↑"εfTf␈↔M≤fN/$↔*ε]≥FN/TW"εLTε6Nm≡"ε.d
V␈/,≥g"r$∧∧≡␈.,W'&UAPRzyDr:<\=vf*uDππαfuBβ≠Eb0hRl]f#XQ!PPGeminiani gives a detailed description of the bowing motion:
.begin
.xquote;
The Motion is to proceed from the Joints of the Wrist and Elbow in playing quick
Notes, and very little or not at all from the Joint of the Shoulder; but in playing
long Notes, where the Bow is drawn from one End of it to the other, the Joint of the
Shoulder is also a little employed.  The Bow must always be drawn parallel with the
Bridge, (which can't be done if it is held stiff) and must be pressed upon the 
Strings with the Fore-finger only, and not with the whole Weight of the Hand.  The
best Performers are least sparing of their Bow; and make Use of the whole of it,
from the Point to that Part of it under, and even beyond their Fingers.  In an upbow
the Hand is bent a little downward from the Joint of the Wrist, when the Nut of the
Bow approaches the Strings, and the Wrist is immediately streightned, or the Hand
rather a little bent back or upward, as soon as the Bow is began to be drawn down
again.
.end;
He has much to say on the importance of bowing in beautiful sound production.
.begin
.xquote;
One of the principal Beauties of the Violin is the swelling or encreasing and
softening the Sound; which is done by pressing the Bow upon the Strings with the
Fore-finger more or less.  In playing all long Notes the Sound should be begun
soft, and gradually swelled till the Middle, and from thence gradually softened
till the End.  And lastly, particular Care must be taken to draw the Bow smooth
from one End to the other without any Interruption or stopping in the Middle.  For
on this principally, and the keeping it always parallel with the Bridge, and 
pressing it only with the Fore-finger upon the Strings with Discretion, depends the
fine Tone of the Instrument.∪∪Geminiani, //The Art/, p.2.∪
.end;
He also cautions:
.begin
.xquote;
The Bow must always be drawn strait on the Strings, and never be raised from them in
playing Semi-quavers...

Before I conclude the Article of Bowing, I must caution the Learner against marking
the Time with his Bow; for if he once accustoms himself to it, he will hardly ever 
leave it off,  And it has a most disagreeable Effect, and frequently destroys the
Design of the Composer.∪∪Ibid., p.9.∪
.end≠
His Examples exercise the player in various combinations of bowings, andhe eXhorts
the student To practice bowing exercises first only On open strings (ExeRcise 
XHIV) "in order not to confound
the Execution od∧AiQ∀A
@'v;↔KM¬;'S!π##πQ∧{⊂∩πMR∧⊗|p"αj≥bε.=
rε}d	V/↔<Yfv(Q(λ-lλ∪;mn→8p⊗_ty2Wλ⊂$w≠w2P"↑0vx6→V⊂42H9t7k\β deFianc@∀AWLAQQJA
IK]GP↓I←o]	←nAeUYJ@@4∃ErA%]gieUGiS]≤AiQJ↓gikI∃]hAi<ACII∃eUCi∀AE←o%]Of@	iCGS9NAπCIJA]←PAi↑A→←YY←\~∃iQ¬hAoe∃iGQK⊂A%kY∀A←LA⊃eCoS9NAiQ∀A¬←n↓I←o\↓ChAi!JAMSIghA≥=iJA←_AKmKIrA¬CH\&'∪	SH\X~∃`\PX&~∀4∀→≠←u¬ehAi¬WKfA	←oS]≤AmCe%KirA¬]HAG=]ie←0A←LAQ←]JAAe←Ik
iS←\↓←]JAMiK`~)Mcei!KdAi!C\AC9rA←i!KdAiUi←d\A/QKIKCfAQQJAiIKCiSMKfA←_Aπ←eIKiiJ0A∂K[%]SC]$XAC]⊂~∃_O¬EEJA1JAMS1fAIKMGeSE∀ABA[∃ggBA⊃RAm←
JAisAJA←L↓g←k]⊂@QoK¬VACh↓iQJA∃qieK5Kf~∃=LAiQ∀AE←n↓C]HAMie←]≤AS\AQQJA[%IIYJ$ACfA	KS]N↓iQJA%IKCX0A≠←u¬ehAaI←a←g∃f~∃S8ACII%iS←\0AaeC
iSGS9NAE←]S]Of↓oQSG AGeK¬iJAi!JAKM→KGif↓←LAB↓gie←9NAg←U]H~∃QCaKe%]NAi<AoKC,@QMS≤\bjR0AoKC,AOe←]S]NAMie←]≤@QMS≤\blR0AC]H↓BAoK¬V[giI←]N[]KCV[Mie←]≤~∃g←U]HAo%iQS\↓←]JAMie←W∀@QMS≤\bnRZACY0A←LAQQKgJ↓aeCGQSgKH↓←\AE=iPAi!JAka	←nAC9HAiQ∀~∃I←]]E←n8@A⊃J↓CYg↑↓eKG←5[K]ILAaeC
iSGS9NAiQ∀Aae←⊃kGiS=\A←L↓BAg←U]HAo!SGP~)SfAa∃eMKGQYrAKYK\AMI←ZA←9JAK]⊂A←LAQQJAE=nAi↑↓iQJA=iQKdQBAE=nAIK→sSMN↓CGhX4∃OSm∃\AiQ∀AeKg%YSK]PAgae%]OS]∃cfA←_ASif↓CGiS=\AeKMkYiS9NAMe=ZASiLAG←]YKpAG=]gieUGiS←8R\
∃5←uCePAgKKβ→βS#*β7πO&+Ceβ|1βS#*β?]∧Eβ↔∨≠↔;SL1β'rβS#∃πβK?C-⊃β↔c.≠WS'}qβ?_hSπ9α∞#π∨'zβC'↔≤)0⊃→9]wV∂,ABαzzlW.⎇8r¬uλ≤F⊗K _L~W	FB$2P![w9tb→y9P1≠{tw3H4vx7\80w:λ2w7jYt⊂:7H22{7]2P~P_t0x:→y9FE≥4π the subject.
¬
Tartini Covers various aspects of bowing.  In tone production
.begin
.xquote;
"To draw a beautiful tone fRom the instrument, place the bow on the strings
gently at first and then increase the pressure.  If the full pressure is
applied immediately, a harsh, scpaping sound wilh result."∪∪"Per cavare
dall''Istromento buona voce bisogn'' appoggiare l''Arco con delicatezza prima,
e poi calcar lo, altrimenti appoggiandolo subito con forza si cavarebbe voce cruda
stridola."  Tartini, //Regole/, p.2.∪
.end;
Significantly, he gives no rules for beginning a passage with an upbow or a downbow, 
but suggests practicing 
all passages both ways to increase facility with the bow.  (He does, however,
later suggest bowings for some situations).∪∪"Intorno all'Arco no vi `e regola
determinata del cominciare l''Arcata in gi`u o in s`u, anzi bisogna esercitarsi
in tutti li passi per dritto, e per rovescio, per essere franchi dell''Arco
con la stessa prontezza tanto in gi`u, come in s`u;"  Tartini, //Regole/, p.2.∪

L''Abb'e le fils includes fairly extensive instructions:
.begin
.xquote;
  "The bow should be drawn with firmness without, however, stiffening the fingers.  
On the contrary, all their joints should be very free;  in observing this, the
fingers will make naturally imperceptible movements which contribute much to
the beauty of the sounds.  The wrist must also be very free. It should guide the
bow straight and direct it over the f-holes of the violin.  The forearm should 
only act and follow the wrist in all the operations.  The arm, properly speaking,
should only yield in the cares when one uses the bow from beginning to end;  theould always be away from the body.
  One can call the bow "The Soul of the Instrument" which it touches, since it
serves to give expression to the sounds, to spin them out, to swell them, and
to diminish them.
  To spin out a sound is to sustain it for a certain [amount of] time through
the same degree of force.
  To swell and diminish the same sound it is necessary to start feebly, swell
by degrees to the point when it fully explodes, then soften it in a similar
manner by degrees in such a fashion that it finishes imperceptibly."∪∪"L''Archet
doit ∧etre tenu avec fermet'e, sans cependant roidir les doigts, toutes leurs
jointures doivent ∧etre au contraire fort libres, en observant cela, les doigts
feront naturellement des mouvemens imperceptibles qui contribueront beaucoup `a
la beaut'e des sons:  le Poignet doit aussi ∧etre tr'es libr'e, il doit conduire
l''Archet droit, et le diriger toujours sur les ⊗⊗Ouies⊗ du Violon. L''avant-bras
doit seulement agir, et suivre le Poignet dans toutes ses op'erations, le bras
proprement dit, ne doit se pr∧eter que dans les cas, o`u l''on employe l''Archet
d''un bout-`a-l''autre;  le Coude soit toujours ∧etre d'etach'e du Corps.
  On peut appeller l''Archet, ⊗⊗l''Ame di l''Instrument⊗ qu''il touche, puis qu''il
sert `a donner l''expression aux sons, `a les filer, `a les enfler, et `a les
diminuer. 
  Filer un son, c''est le so∧utenir un certain tems au m∧eme d'egr'e de force.
  Pour enfler et diminuer le m∧eme son, il faut le commencer foiblement, l''enfler
par d'egr'e, jusqu''`a ce qu''il 'eclate pleinement, et ensuite l''addoucir de
m∧eme par d'egr'e, de fa,con qu''il finisse insensiblement."  L''Abb'e le fils,
//Principes/, p.1.∪
.end;

.SS|Conclusion|
The handling of the violin and bow showed definite trends through
the late 17th and early 18th centuries corresponding to the demands of more
advanced technique.  This progression is evidenced in the treatises of that period.

The need for stability in virtuosic passages showed the advantages of positioning
the instrument by supporting it not on the chest, but on the shoulder where 
it could be further steadied by the chin.

This same need demonstrated the superiority of the Italian bow grip over
the French in controlling the action and sound production.
There has been much discussion among modern scholars as to the
Handling of the baroque violin bow And the type of sound it Would have produced.
DavId Boyden has pOinted out that↓SDAi!JA]CQkeCX↓S]GY%]CiS=]fA←_AiQJ↓G←]m∃pAE←\~∃oKIJAM←1YWoK⊂XAiQ∀AeKgUY`Ao=kYHAα∪∃β¬∧k?K∃ε#↔Sπ≡C↔⊃β⊗{←'≠8βπ;⊃π##∀4T¬V/∨<⊂ε&J∞iv≡*∞=w.vD∞π⊗}NXλnM;{@L<xp→~q2r⊂~w⊂6p[<P7cλ:42P≥92pz~yryWλ⊂&w`:art's tutor,
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